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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 2.33 cu km/yr (14%/84%/3%)
per capita: 444 cu m/yr (1999)

Total renewable water resources:
110 cu km (2005)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,654 km
border countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,313 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Map references:
Europe

Geographic coordinates:
64 00 N, 26 00 E

Natural resources:
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Geography - note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Area:
total: 338,145 sq km
land: 304,473 sq km
water: 33,672 sq km

Location:
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Coastline:
1,250 km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Montana

Irrigated land:
640 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Natural hazards:
NA

Land use:
arable land: 6.54%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 93.44% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,500 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.82 years
male: 75.31 years
female: 82.46 years (2008 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)

Net migration rate:
0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)

Median age:
total: 41.8 years
male: 40.3 years
female: 43.4 years (2008 est.)

Population:
5,244,749 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
6.4% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
0.112% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Finnish 91.5% (official), Swedish 5.5% (official), other 3% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2006)

Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.6% (male 443,738/female 427,875)
15-64 years: 66.8% (male 1,773,232/female 1,731,808)
65 years and over: 16.6% (male 349,826/female 518,270) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
10.39 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Lutheran Church of Finland 82.5%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 15.1% (2006)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara BARRETT
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800

National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pekka LINTU
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional members), AfDB (nonregional members), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 March 2007 (next to be held March 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 23.1%, Kok 22.3%, SDP 21.4%, VAS 8.8%, VIHR 8.5%, KD 4.9%, SFP 4.5%, True Finns 4.1%, other 3.4%; seats by party - Kesk 51, Kok 50, SDP 45, VAS 17, VIHR 15, SFP 9, KD 7, True Finns 5, other 1

Legal system:
civil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Independence:
6 December 1917 (from Russia)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland

Political parties and leaders:
Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green Party or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS [Martti KORHONEN] (composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative); National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Jutta URPILAINEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]

Capital:
name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Constitution:
1 March 2000

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 19 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment; Prime Minister VANHANEN reelected 17 April 2007
election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 January 2006 - HALONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%; Matti VANHANEN reelected prime minister; election results 121-71
note: government coalition - Kesk, KOK, VIHR, and SFP

Administrative divisions:
6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaan Laani (Aland), Etela-Suomen Laani (Southern Finland), Ita-Suomen Laani (Eastern Finland), Lansi-Suomen Laani (Western Finland), Lapin Laani (Lapland), Oulun Laani

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Germany 10.9%, Sweden 10.7%, Russia 10.3%, US 6.4%, UK 5.8%, Netherlands 5.6% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
86.04 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - imports:
15.42 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
$10.63 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$271.2 billion (30 June 2007)

Unemployment rate:
6.5% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
126,300 bbl/day (January-September 2007 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$38,400 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
19.9% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$240.7 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$201.2 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$287.6 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (2005)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
2.4% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
NA
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the Euro Area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 15 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Labor force:
2.71 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Germany 15.8%, Russia 14%, Sweden 13.7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.5%, UK 4.9% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 33.2%
services: 64% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
281,300 bbl/day (January-September 2007 est.)

Exports:
$104.3 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
4.581 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
euro (EUR)

Economy - overview:
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important; exports equal nearly two-fifths of GDP. Finland excels in high-tech exports, e.g., mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Although Finland has been one of the best performing economies within the EU in recent years and its banks and financial markets have avoided the worst of global financial crisis, the world slowdown has hit export growth and domestic demand and will serve as a brake on economic growth in 2009 and 2010. Unemployment has dropped sharply in recent years, but is likely to drift upwards. Long-term challenges include the need to address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $1.023 billion (2007)

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Industries:
metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Electricity - exports:
2.86 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.62% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
NA

Electricity - production:
77.02 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Imports:
$93.28 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
NA bbl

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture and forestry 4.4%, industry 18.6%, construction 6%, commerce 16.3%, finance, insurance, and business services 13.9%, transport and communications 7.6%, public services 33.2% (2004)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.535 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
228,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$121.9 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
32.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$94.57 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$369.2 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:
EUR

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 22.6% (2000)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 39%
hydro: 18.7%
nuclear: 30.4%
other: 11.8% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
4.576 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $62.02 billion
expenditures: $58.16 billion (2007 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
8,951 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
3.6 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.74 million (2007)

Televisions:
3.2 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
7.7 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
6.08 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999); note - On 1 September 2007, Finland became one of the first countries in the world to broadcast all television signals digitally

Telephone system:
general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
3 (2002)

Internet hosts:
3.877 million (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
7,842 km
note: includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 694 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 5,741 km
broad gauge: 5,741 km 1.524-m gauge (2,619 km electrified) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Naantali, Pori, Raahe, Rauma, Turku

Merchant marine:
total: 98
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 28, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 18, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 27, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 8 (Estonia 2, Germany 1, Norway 3, Sweden 2)
registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 9, Germany 4, Gibraltar 3, Netherlands 14, Norway 1, Panama 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Sweden 12, UK 1) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 76
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 15 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 78,821 km
paved: 50,854 km (includes 700 km of expressways)
unpaved: 27,967 km (2008)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 72
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 68 (2007)

Airports:
148 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,169,910
females age 16-49: 1,121,187 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 965,131
females age 16-49: 923,224 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army, Navy (includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Suomen Ilmavoimat) (2007)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 34,152
female: 32,870 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

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