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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Mounting public dissatisfaction with President MUSHARRAF, coupled with the assassination of the prominent and popular political leader, Benazir BHUTTO, in late 2007, and MUSHARRAF's resignation in August 2008, led to the September presidential election of Asif ZARDARI, BHUTTO's widower. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control Islamist militants, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. The November 2008 Mumbai attacks again inflamed Indo-Pakistan relations. The Pakistani Government is also faced with a deteriorating economy as foreign exchange reserves decline, the currency depreciates, and the current account deficit widens.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 169.39 cu km/yr (2%/2%/96%)
per capita: 1,072 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
233.8 cu km (2003)

Land boundaries:
total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Climate:
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Map references:
Asia

Geographic coordinates:
30 00 N, 70 00 E

Natural resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Terrain:
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Geography - note:
controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Area:
total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km

Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Coastline:
1,046 km

Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of California

Irrigated land:
182,300 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Natural hazards:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Land use:
arable land: 24.44%
permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
3.73 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
74,000 (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.13 years
male: 63.07 years
female: 65.25 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.9%
male: 63%
female: 36% (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
-0.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhagirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%

Median age:
total: 20.5 years
male: 20.3 years
female: 20.6 years (2008 est.)

Population:
172,800,048 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2006)

Population growth rate:
1.999% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski and other 8%

Death rate:
7.85 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 66.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 67.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
4,900 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37.8% (male 33,617,953/female 31,741,258)
15-64 years: 58% (male 51,292,535/female 48,921,023)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,408,749/female 3,818,533) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
28.35 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%

Nationality:
noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar

National holiday:
Republic Day, 23 March (1956)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

Government type:
federal republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Husain HAQQANI
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California)

International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, C (reinstated 2004), CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009); National Assembly - last held on 18 February 2008 with by-elections on 26 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 38, MMA 18, PPPP 10, MQM 6, PML-N 4, PKMAP 3, ANP 2, PPP-S 2, BNP-A 1, BNP-M 1, JWP 1, NA 1, PML-F 1, independents 12; National Assembly results (as of 26 June 2008) - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 124, PML-N 91, PML 54, MQM 25, ANP 13, MMA 7, PML-F 5, BNP-A 1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 17; note - 3 seats remain unfilled

Legal system:
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

Independence:
14 August 1947 (from British India)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan

Political parties and leaders:
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz Sharif or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Peoples Party-SHERPAO or PPP-S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently

Capital:
name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008)
note: following President Pervez MUSHARRAF's resignation on 18 August 2008, elections were held on 6 September in which Asif Ali ZARDARI won a clear majority; ZARDARI'S inauguration as president of Pakistan on 9 September solidified the country's return to civilian government after more than eight years of military rule
head of government: Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
elections: the president is elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008 (next to be held not later than 2013); note - any person who is a Muslim and not less than 45 years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008
election results: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes, SIDDIQUE 153 votes, SYED 44 votes; Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI elected prime minister; GILANI 264 votes, Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions

Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
US 18%, UAE 10.4%, Afghanistan 8.4%, China 5.2%, UK 4.7% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
68.4 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
15% (31 November 2008)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$10.57 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$43.23 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
7.4% plus substantial underemployment (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
28,060 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,600 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
20% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$65.05 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$454.2 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$160.9 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.6 (FY07/08)

Exchange rates:
Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 70.64 (2008 est.), 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.7% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$52.76 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
50.58 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
China 16.2%, Saudi Arabia 10.9%, UAE 10.1%, US 5.7%, Kuwait 4.9%, Japan 4.4% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
20.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20.4%
industry: 26.6%
services: 53% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
290,600 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$20.62 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
30.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
Pakistani rupee (PKR)

Economy - overview:
Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, since 2001, IMF-approved reforms - most notably, privatization of the banking sector - bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets, have generated macroeconomic recovery. Pakistan experienced GDP growth in the 6-8% range in 2004-07, spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors. Poverty levels decreased by 10% since 2001, and Islamabad steadily raised development spending in recent years. In 2008 the fiscal deficit - a result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending - exceeded Islamabad's target of 4% of GDP. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.8% during 2008, primarily because of rising world fuel and commodity prices. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated significantly as a result of political and economic instability. A balance of payment crisis forced the Pakistani government to turn to the IMF for a conditional loan program in late November 2008.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea

Industries:
textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
24% (FY05/06 est.)

Stock of quasi money:
$18.42 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
93.26 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Imports:
$35.38 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
289.2 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 43%
industry: 20.3%
services: 36.6% (2005 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
792.8 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$9.104 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
345,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.032 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
49.8% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$25.31 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$70.26 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:
PKR

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.3% (2002)

Exports - commodities:
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

Economic aid - recipient:
$1.666 billion (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 68.8%
hydro: 28.2%
nuclear: 3%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
30.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $22.14 billion
expenditures: $32.09 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Oil - production:
68,670 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
17.5 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
4.546 million (2008)

Televisions:
3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.pk

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006)

Radios:
13.5 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
88.02 million (2008)

Television broadcast stations:
20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006)

Telephone system:
general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments into fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 88 million in 2008, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2008)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
30 (2000)

Internet hosts:
197,264 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Pipelines:
gas 10,398 km; oil 2,076 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim

Heliports:
18 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 15
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 19 (Comoros 4, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 9, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 92
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 29
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 10 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 259,758 km
paved: 162,879 km (includes 711 km of expressways)
unpaved: 96,879 km (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 24 (2007)

Airports:
146 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
16 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age of 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 42,633,765
females age 16-49: 40,114,017 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 32,453,913
females age 16-49: 31,369,057 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 2,062,065
female: 1,936,916 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2007 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 1,043,984 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan); 34,000 (October 2005 earthquake; most of those displaced returned to their home villages in the spring of 2006) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests

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Quiz #2
  1. What famous canal was built at the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans?
  Atlantic-Pacific Canal
  Transcontinental Canal
  Panama Canal
  Erie Canal
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