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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863 and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal for crimes against humanity. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007, and there was little in the way of pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2008 were relatively peaceful.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 4.08 cu km/yr (1%/0%/98%)
per capita: 290 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
476.1 cu km (1999)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Climate:
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Map references:
Southeast Asia

Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 105 00 E

Natural resources:
oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Terrain:
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Geography - note:
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap

Area:
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Coastline:
443 km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Irrigated land:
2,700 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm

Natural hazards:
monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Land use:
arable land: 20.44%
permanent crops: 0.59%
other: 78.97% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
3.08 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
2.6% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
170,000 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.69 years
male: 59.65 years
female: 63.83 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.6%
male: 84.7%
female: 64.1% (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
NA (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Median age:
total: 21.7 years
male: 21 years
female: 22.5 years (2008 est.)

Population:
14,241,640
note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
1.7% of GDP (2004)

Population growth rate:
1.752% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Death rate:
8.16 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 56.59 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
15,000 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33.2% (male 2,389,668/female 2,338,838)
15-64 years: 63.2% (male 4,372,480/female 4,627,895)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 193,338/female 319,421) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
25.68 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carol A. RODLEY
embassy: #1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600

National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Cambodian Freedom Fighters or CFF; Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization); Students Movement for Democracy; The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; vendors

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador HENG HEM
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

International organization participation:
ACCT, ADB, APT, ARF, ASEAN, EAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
bicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2008 (next to be held in July 2013); Senate - last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 58%, SRP 22%, HRP 7%; NRP 6%; FUNCINPEC 5%; others 2%; seats by party - CPP 90, SRP 26, HRP 3, FUNCINPEC 2, NRP 2; Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69%, FUNCINPEC 21%, SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45, FUNCINPEC 10, SRP 2

Legal system:
primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band
note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building in its design

Independence:
9 November 1953 (from France)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
local short form: Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia

Political parties and leaders:
Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [CHHIM SEAK LENG]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]

Capital:
name: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
promulgated 21 September 1993

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985) [co-prime minister from 1993 to 1997]; Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK AN, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004); BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007); KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: the king is chosen by a Royal Throne Council from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king

Administrative divisions:
20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Krachen, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnum Penh (Phnom Penh), Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville)

Judicial branch:
Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
US 58.1%, Germany 7.3%, UK 5.2%, Canada 4.6%, Vietnam 4.5% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
1.178 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5.25% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
110 million kWh (2006 est.)

Current account balance:
-$869 million (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$4.317 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
2.5% (2000 est.)

Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,100 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
21.3% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.131 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$29.24 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.82 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.7 (2004 est.)

Exchange rates:
riels (KHR) per US dollar - 4,070.94 (2008 est.), 4,006 (2007), 4,103 (2006), 4,092.5 (2005), 4,016.25 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
7% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$513.6 million (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
7 million (2003 est.)

Imports - partners:
Thailand 23.1%, Vietnam 16.9%, China 15%, Hong Kong 10.4%, Singapore 7.5%, Taiwan 7.2%, South Korea 4.8% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21.1% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 26%
services: 43% (2007 est.)

Oil - imports:
3,618 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$4.616 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
riel (KHR)

Economy - overview:
From 2001 to 2004, the economy grew more than 6% per year, driven largely by an expansion in the garment sector and tourism. With the January 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, Cambodian textile producers were forced to compete directly with lower-priced countries such as China and India. The garment industry currently employs more than 350,000 people and contributes more than 70% of Cambodia's exports. In 2005, exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a new revenue stream for the government if commercial extraction begins. Mining also is attracting significant investor interest, particularly in the northeastern parts of the country, and the government has said opportunities exist for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems. In 2006, a US-Cambodia bilateral Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) was signed and the first round of discussions took place in early 2007. The tourism industry has continued to grow rapidly, with foreign arrivals reaching 2 million in 2007, however, economic troubles abroad will dampen growth in 2009. The global financial crisis is weakening demand for Cambodian exports, and construction is declining due to a shortage of credit. The long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge. The Cambodian government is working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is less than 21 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

Industries:
tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
35% (2004)

Stock of quasi money:
$2.309 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
1.163 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$6.424 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 75%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Natural gas - proved reserves:
NA

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.375 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
3,736 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
KHR

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 34.8% (2004)

Exports - commodities:
clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

Economic aid - recipient:
$698.2 million pledged in grants and concession loans for 2007 by international donors (2007)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 65%
hydro: 35%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.264 billion
expenditures: $1.478 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
70,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
37,500 (2007)

Televisions:
94,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
.kh

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 21, shortwave NA (2007)

Radios:
1.34 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.583 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
9 (including 2 TV relay stations with French and Vietnamese broadcasts); excludes 18 regional relay stations (2006)

Telephone system:
general assessment: mobile-phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by increasing competition among service providers, is increasing and stands at nearly 20 per 100 persons
domestic: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)

Internet hosts:
1,230 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2008)

Railways:
total: 602 km
narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Phnom Penh, Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville)

Heliports:
1 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 626
by type: bulk carrier 41, cargo 530, carrier 3, chemical tanker 10, container 8, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 467 (Canada 2, China 193, Cyprus 7, Egypt 13, Gabon 1, Greece 3, Hong Kong 8, Indonesia 2, Japan 1, South Korea 22, Latvia 1, Lebanon 8, Netherlands 1, Romania 1, Russia 83, Singapore 4, Syria 48, Taiwan 1, Turkey 26, Ukraine 34, UAE 2, US 6) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 38,257 km
paved: 2,406 km
unpaved: 35,851 km (2004)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

Airports:
17 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
conscription law of October 2006 requires all males between 18-30 to register for military service; 18-month service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 3,759,034
females age 16-49: 3,784,333 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,581,045
females age 16-49: 2,676,075 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 185,959
female: 182,558 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers and claims of Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; Thailand accuses Cambodia of obstructing inclusion of Thai areas near Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962, as part of a planned UN World Heritage site

Illicit drugs:
narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders

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