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  Lithuania   
Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795, when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 3.33 cu km/yr (78%/15%/7%)
per capita: 971 cu m/yr (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
24.5 cu km (2005)

Land boundaries:
total: 1,574 km
border countries: Belarus 680 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Map references:
Europe

Geographic coordinates:
56 00 N, 24 00 E

Natural resources:
peat, arable land, amber

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 293.6 m

Terrain:
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Geography - note:
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

Area:
total: 65,300 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km

Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Coastline:
90 km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than West Virginia

Irrigated land:
70 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Natural hazards:
NA

Land use:
arable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.22 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,300 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.67 years
male: 69.72 years
female: 79.89 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.6% (2001 census)

Net migration rate:
-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)

Median age:
total: 39 years
male: 36.4 years
female: 41.6 years (2008 est.)

Population:
3,565,205 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
5% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
-0.284% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)

Death rate:
11.12 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.57 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 200 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 17 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.5% (male 264,668/female 250,997)
15-64 years: 69.5% (male 1,214,236/female 1,263,198)
65 years and over: 16% (male 197,498/female 374,608) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
9 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)

Nationality:
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510

National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Europe House (promotes the EU); European Movement (promotes the EU); Lithuanian Future Forum (promotes the EU)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA
chancery: temporary address: 2300 Clarendon Boulevard, Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members are elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 and 26 October 2008 (next to be held October 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 19.7%, TPP 15.1%, TT 12.7%, LSDP 11.7%, KDP+J 9%, LRLS 5.7%, LCS 5.3%, LLRA 4.8%, LVLS 3.7%, NS 3.6%, other 8.7%; seats by faction - TS-LKD 44, LSDP 26, TPP 16, TT 15, LRLS 11, KDP+J 10, LCS 8, LLRA 3, LVLS 3, NS 1, independent 4

Legal system:
based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

Independence:
11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by Soviet Union)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Political parties and leaders:
Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Coalition of Labor Party and Youth or KDP+J [Viktor USPASKICH]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Lithuanian Peasant Popular Union or LVLS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Movement or LRLS [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; National Revival or TPP [Arunas VALINSKAS]; New Union (Social Liberal) or NS [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gediminas KIRKILAS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]

Capital:
name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Constitution:
adopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held in May 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions

Administrative divisions:
10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus

Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Russia 15%, Latvia 12.9%, Germany 10.5%, Poland 6.3%, Estonia 5.8%, UK 4.6%, Denmark 4.1%, Belarus 4% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
10.4 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.85% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
5.846 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$6.775 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$35.46 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
4.8%
note: based on survey data, official registered unemployment of 5.7% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
148,400 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$18,400 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
27.8% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$25.05 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$65.76 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$48.75 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36 (2005)

Exchange rates:
litai (LTL) per US dollar - 2.3251 (2008 est.), 2.5362 (2007), 2.7498 (2006), 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
5.1% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$11.84 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
1.601 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Russia 18%, Germany 15%, Poland 10.6%, Latvia 5.5%, Netherlands 4.3% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.3%
industry: 32.8%
services: 62.8% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
206,700 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$23.48 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
3.44 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
litas (LTL)

Economy - overview:
Lithuania has grown on average 8% per year over the last four years, driven by exports and domestic consumer demand. Unemployment stood at 4.8% in 2008, while wages continued to grow at double digit rates. The current account deficit rose to roughly 15% of GDP in 2007-08. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Despite Lithuania's EU accession, Lithuania's trade with its Central and Eastern European neighbors, and Russia in particular, accounts for a growing percentage of total trade. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals

Industries:
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry

Electricity - exports:
7.217 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
4% (2003)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.86% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$6.917 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
11.91 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$30.26 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
12 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 29.1%
services: 56.9% (2005)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.397 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
57,170 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.142 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
11.9% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$16.43 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$10.13 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:
LTL

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.7% (2003)

Exports - commodities:
mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)

Economic aid - recipient:
$249.7 million (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 16.5%
hydro: 5.7%
nuclear: 77.7%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
3.44 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $15.4 billion
expenditures: $15.86 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
8,250 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
1.333 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
799,400 (2007)

Televisions:
1.7 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.lt

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
1.9 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.912 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
27 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2001)

Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of main line subscriptions; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to about 135 per 100 persons while fixed-line teledensity has dropped to 22 per 100 persons
international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
32 (2001)

Internet hosts:
812,083 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
441 km (2007)

Pipelines:
gas 1,695 km; oil 228 km; refined products 121 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 1,771 km
broad gauge: 1,749 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Klaipeda

Merchant marine:
total: 45
by type: cargo 23, container 2, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 13
foreign-owned: 6 (Denmark 5, Ukraine 1)
registered in other countries: 28 (Antigua and Barbuda 5, Cook Islands 1, North Korea 1, Malta 1, Norway 1, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 30
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 17 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 80,715 km
paved: 71,301 km (includes 309 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,414 km (2007)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 57
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 53 (2007)

Airports:
87 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 915,187
females age 16-49: 906,097 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 678,434
females age 16-49: 749,483 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Ground Forces, Naval Force, Lithuanian Military Air Forces, National Defense Volunteer Forces (2005)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 25,907
female: 24,735 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.2% of GDP (2006; 1.23% 2007 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

Illicit drugs:
transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

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