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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present-day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling Grimaldi family secured control in the late 13th century, and a principality was established in 1338. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

  Geography Back To Top

Land boundaries:
total: 4.4 km
border countries: France 4.4 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Map references:
Europe

Geographic coordinates:
43 44 N, 7 24 E

Natural resources:
none

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Terrain:
hilly, rugged, rocky

Geography - note:
second-smallest independent state in the world (after Holy See); almost entirely urban

Area:
total: 1.95 sq km
land: 1.95 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Location:
Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Coastline:
4.1 km

Area - comparative:
about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Irrigated land:
NA

Environment - current issues:
NA

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

Natural hazards:
NA

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.75 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.96 years
male: 76.14 years
female: 83.97 years (2008 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
7.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%

Median age:
total: 45.5 years
male: 43.5 years
female: 47.5 years (2008 est.)

Population:
32,796 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
4.4% of GDP (2004)

Population growth rate:
0.375% (2008 est.)

Languages:
French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Death rate:
12.96 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 5.18 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14.8% (male 2,488/female 2,369)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 10,110/female 10,353)
65 years and over: 22.8% (male 3,048/female 4,428) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
9.09 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%

Nationality:
noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles routine diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco

National holiday:
National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador to the US and UN Gilles NOGHES
chancery: 2314 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 552-5778

International organization participation:
CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3 February 2008 (next to be held February 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPM 52.2%, REM 40.5%, Monaco Together 7.3%; seats by party - UPM 21, REM 3

Legal system:
based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

Independence:
1419 (beginning of rule by the House of Grimaldi)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco

Political parties and leaders:
Union for Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM); Rally and Issues for Monaco or REM; Monaco Together

Capital:
name: Monaco
geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Constitution:
17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
head of government: Minister of State Jean-Paul PROUST (since 1 June 2005)
cabinet: Council of Government is under the authority of the monarch
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Administrative divisions:
none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are four quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)

  Economy Back To Top

Electricity - consumption:
NA kWh

Electricity - imports:
NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by France

Debt - external:
$18 billion (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:
0% (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$30,000 (2006 est.)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$976.3 million
note: Monaco does not publish national income figures; the estimates are extremely rough (2006 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$NA

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
0.9% (2000 est.)

Labor force:
44,000
note: includes workers from all foreign countries (2005 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.9% (2000)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 0%
industry: 4.9%
services: 95.1% (2005)

Exports:
$716.3 million
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France (2005)

Currency (code):
euro (EUR)

Economy - overview:
Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a major banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

Industries:
tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Imports:
$916.1 million
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France (2005)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
EUR

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Economic aid - recipient:
$NA

Budget:
revenues: $863 million
expenditures: $920.6 million (2005 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
20,000 (2006)

Telephones - main lines in use:
34,000 (2005)

Televisions:
25,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
.mc

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM NA, shortwave 8 (1998)

Radios:
34,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
17,200 (2005)

Television broadcast stations:
5 (1998)

Telephone system:
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)

Internet hosts:
21,058 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Ports and terminals:
Monaco

Heliports:
1 (2007)

Merchant marine:
registered in other countries: 70 (Bahamas 15, Georgia 4, Isle of Man 3, Liberia 8, Marshall Islands 13, Norway 5, Panama 16, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Vanuatu 1) (2008)

Roadways:
total: 50 km
paved: 50 km (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,687 (2008 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,376 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
no regular military forces; the Palace Guard performs ceremonial duties

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 191
female: 182 (2008 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
none

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