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  Mozambique   
Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. Mozambique has seen very strong economic growth since the end of the civil war largely due to post-conflict reconstruction.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.63 cu km/yr (11%/2%/87%)
per capita: 32 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
216 cu km (1992)

Land boundaries:
total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
tropical to subtropical

Map references:
Africa

Geographic coordinates:
18 15 S, 35 00 E

Natural resources:
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west

Geography - note:
the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country

Area:
total: 801,590 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km

Location:
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania

Coastline:
2,470 km

Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of California

Irrigated land:
1,180 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Natural hazards:
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces

Land use:
arable land: 5.43%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 94.28% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
5.24 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
12.2% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1.3 million (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 41.04 years
male: 41.62 years
female: 40.44 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
NA (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%

Median age:
total: 17.4 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.8 years (2008 est.)

Population:
21,284,700
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
5% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
1.792% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)

Death rate:
20.29 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 107.84 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 110.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 104.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
110,000 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2005)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44.5% (male 4,762,335/female 4,711,422)
15-64 years: 52.7% (male 5,472,184/female 5,736,154)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 251,026/female 351,580) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
38.21 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)

Nationality:
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Todd C. CHAPMAN
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 492797
FAX: [258] (21) 490114

National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]; Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%, other 8.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90

Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

Independence:
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa

Political parties and leaders:
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]

Capital:
name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
30 November 1990

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%

Administrative divisions:
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Italy 19.4%, Belgium 18.4%, Spain 12.5%, South Africa 12.3%, UK 7.3%, China 4.1% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
9.555 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
9.95% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
9.839 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Current account balance:
-$981 million (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$4.316 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
21% (1997 est.)

Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$900 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
24% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$877.2 million (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$19.68 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$9.788 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
47.3 (2002)

Exchange rates:
meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 24.125 (2008 est.), 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006), 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004)
note: in 2006 Mozambique revalued its currency, with 1000 old meticais equal to 1 new meticais

GDP - real growth rate:
6.9% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$1.261 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
10.04 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
South Africa 36.7%, Australia 8.5%, China 4.6% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23.4%
industry: 30.7%
services: 45.9% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
13,240 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$2.693 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
1.45 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Currency (code):
metical (MZM)

Economy - overview:
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s, and although it returned to double digits in 2000-06, in 2007 inflation had slowed to 8%, while GDP growth reached 7.5%. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. At the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007 the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a Compact with Mozambique; the Mozambican government moved rapidly to ratify the Compact and propose a plan for funding.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles

Industries:
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Electricity - exports:
12.83 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
70% (2001 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
19.52% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$1.467 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
14.62 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$3.292 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.067 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
14,390 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Public debt:
21.4% of GDP (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
MZM

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 39.4% (2002)

Exports - commodities:
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity

Economic aid - recipient:
$1.286 billion (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.9%
hydro: 97.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
1.65 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.786 billion
expenditures: $3.108 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
200,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
67,000 (2006)

Televisions:
67,600 (2000)

Internet country code:
.mz

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)

Radios:
730,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
3.3 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
1 (2000)

Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system with an extremely low density of less than 1 fixed line per 100 persons
domestic: the telecommunications sector is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges; stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2002)

Internet hosts:
22,532 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 964 km; refined products 278 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Beira, Maputo, Nacala

Merchant marine:
total: 2
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (2000)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 125
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 79 (2007)

Airports:
147 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,545,975 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,287,526 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 257,261
female: 259,114 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.8% of GDP (2006)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
none

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Mozambique is a source and, to a much lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the use of forced and bonded child laborers is a common practice in Mozambique's rural areas; women and girls are trafficked from rural to urban areas of Mozambique, as well as to South Africa, for domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation; young men and boys are trafficked to South Africa for farm work and mining
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - for the second consecutive year, Mozambique is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking in 2007; while the government conducted investigations into cases of human trafficking, there were no prosecutions or convictions of traffickers; government efforts to protect victims of trafficking continued to suffer from limited resources and a lack of political commitment (2008)

Illicit drugs:
southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

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