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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again by 1996. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS held legislative elections in September 2008, and announced plans to hold presidential elections in 2009.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.35 cu km/yr (23%/17%/60%)
per capita: 22 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
184 cu km (1987)

Land boundaries:
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Map references:
Africa

Geographic coordinates:
12 30 S, 18 30 E

Natural resources:
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Terrain:
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Geography - note:
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Area:
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Location:
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Coastline:
1,600 km

Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Irrigated land:
800 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Natural hazards:
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Land use:
arable land: 2.65%
permanent crops: 0.23%
other: 97.12% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
6.2 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
3.9% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
240,000 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 37.92 years
male: 36.99 years
female: 38.9 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.4%
male: 82.9%
female: 54.2% (2001 est.)

Net migration rate:
1.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Median age:
total: 18 years
male: 18 years
female: 18 years (2008 est.)

Population:
12,531,357 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
2.4% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
2.136% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Death rate:
24.44 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 182.31 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 194.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 169.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
21,000 (2003 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.6% (male 2,760,264/female 2,707,665)
15-64 years: 53.6% (male 3,416,914/female 3,302,552)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 151,609/female 192,353) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
44.09 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dan MOZENA
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232

National holiday:
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic; multiparty presidential regime

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITE
chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5-6 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 81.6%, UNITA 10.4%, PRS 3.2%, ND 1.2%, FNLA 1.1%, other 2.5%; seats by party - MPLA 191, UNITA 16, PRS 8, FNLA 3, ND 2

Legal system:
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Independence:
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Political parties and leaders:
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Ngola KABANGU]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA (largest opposition party) [Isaias SAMAKUVA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA (ruling party in power since 1975) [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS]; Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
note: nine other parties participated in the legislative election in September but won no seats

Capital:
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 14 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
adopted by People's Assembly 25 August 1992

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Antonio Paulo KASSOMA was named prime minister by MPLA on 26 September 2008
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS was selected by the party to take over after the death of former President Augustino NETO(1979) under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held in September 2009)
election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was never held leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president

Administrative divisions:
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
US 32.1%, China 32%, France 5.9%, Taiwan 5.3%, South Africa 4.5% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
3.084 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
19.57% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
$21.01 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$7.907 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
1.23 million bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,100 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
9% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.385 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$114.6 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$95.95 billion (2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar - 75.023 (2008 est.), 76.6 (2007), 80.4 (2006), 88.6 (2005), 83.541 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
15.1% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$4.153 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
7.288 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Portugal 19.7%, US 10.9%, China 10.5%, Brazil 10.3%, South Africa 6.6%, France 6.3%, UK 4.6%, Germany 4.3% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.5% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.2%
industry: 65.8%
services: 24.6% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
19,550 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$72.58 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
680 million cu m (2006 est.)

Currency (code):
kwanza (AOA)

Economy - overview:
Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, which has taken advantage of high international oil prices. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 85% of GDP. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 15% per year from 2004 to 2007. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food must still be imported. In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit, since increased to $7 billion, from China to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects were completed in 2006. Angola also has large credit lines from Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU. The central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of circulation. This policy became more sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings; it has significantly reduced inflation. Although consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to under 13% in 2008, the stabilization policy has put pressure on international net liquidity. Angola became a member of OPEC in late 2006 and in late 2007 was assigned a production quota of 1.9 million barrels a day, somewhat less than the 2-2.5 million bbl Angola's government had wanted. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to implement government reforms, increase transparency, and reduce corruption. The government has rejected a formal IMF monitored program, although it continues Article IV consultations and ad hoc cooperation. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, and the negative effects of large inflows of foreign exchange, are major challenges facing Angola.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Industries:
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
70% (2003 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
17.7% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$7.216 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
3.513 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$15.25 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
9.035 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
269.8 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$24.64 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
55,640 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$227 million (2006 est.)

Public debt:
8.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$19.49 billion (2008 est.)

Currency code:
AOA

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Economic aid - recipient:
$441.8 million (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 36.4%
hydro: 63.6%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
680 million cu m (2006 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $27.18 billion
expenditures: $20.6 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
1.91 million bbl/day (2008 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
100,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
98,200 (2006)

Televisions:
196,000 (2000)

Internet country code:
.ao

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2001)

Radios:
815,000 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
3.307 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
6 (2000)

Telephone system:
general assessment: system inadequate; fewer than one fixed-line per 100 persons; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density exceeded 25 telephones per 100 persons in 2007
domestic: state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately-owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)

Internet hosts:
3,562 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
1,300 km (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 234 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 896 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 2,761 km
narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

Merchant marine:
total: 6
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 6 (Bahamas 6) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 201
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 69 (2007)

Airports:
232 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years plus time for training (2001)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,856,492
females age 16-49: 2,755,864 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,430,658
females age 16-49: 1,371,689 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Angolan Armed Forces (FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Angolan National Air Force (FANA) (2007)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 142,791
female: 139,539 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
5.7% of GDP (2006)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Cabindan separatists continue to return to the Angolan exclave from exile in neighboring states and Europe since the 2006 ceasefire and peace agreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 12,615 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
IDPs: 61,700 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs already have returned) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa

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