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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 21.03 cu km/yr (9%/59%/32%)
per capita: 2,082 cu m/yr (2001)

Total renewable water resources:
120 cu km (2005)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,185 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 166 km, Slovakia 676 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Map references:
Europe

Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 20 00 E

Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

Area:
total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km

Location:
Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Indiana

Irrigated land:
2,300 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Land use:
arable land: 49.58%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 48.36% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,800 (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.18 years
male: 69 years
female: 77.62 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)

Median age:
total: 39.1 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 41.8 years (2008 est.)

Population:
9,930,915 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
-0.254% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)

Death rate:
12.99 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.03 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2001 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.2% (male 774,092/female 730,485)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 3,393,630/female 3,488,011)
65 years and over: 15.6% (male 559,483/female 985,214) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
9.59 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census)

Nationality:
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador April H. FOLEY
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764

National holiday:
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Air Work Group (works to reduce air pollution in towns and cities); Company For Freedom Rights (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (personal data protection); Danube Circle (protests the building of the Gabchikovo-Nagymaros dam); Green Future (protests the impact of lead contamination of local factory on health of the people); environmentalists: Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society (Magyar Madartani Egyesulet)or MME; Green Alternative (Zold Alternativa)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ferenc SOMOGYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 and 23 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSzP 43.2%, Fidesz-KDNP 42%, SzDSz 6.5%, MDF 5%, other 3.3%; seats by party - MSzP 190, Fidesz-KDNP 164, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 1; seats by party as of September 2008 - MSzP 189, Fidesz-KDNP 162, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 3, vacant 1

Legal system:
based on the German-Austrian legal system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

Independence:
25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor FODOR]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Ferenc GYURCSANY]

Capital:
name: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Constitution:
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004
election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round

Administrative divisions:
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest

Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Germany 28.1%, Italy 5.6%, France 4.7%, Austria 4.6%, Romania 4.5%, UK 4.5%, Slovakia 4.2%, Poland 4.2% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
37.11 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
7.5% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
14.68 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$8.557 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$144.2 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
66,660 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$20,500 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
21.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$109.5 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$203.9 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$164.3 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28 (2005)

Exchange rates:
forints (HUF) per US dollar - 165.89 (2008 est.), 186.16 (2007), 210.39 (2006), 199.58 (2005), 202.75 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
2% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$36.78 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
4.2 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Germany 26.6%, China 7.8%, Russia 6.9%, Austria 6.1%, Italy 4.5%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.3% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.2%
industry: 31.9%
services: 65% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
178,400 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$109.3 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
13.36 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
forint (HUF)

Economy - overview:
Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-25 average. The private sector accounts for more than 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $60 billion since 1989. Hungary's impending inability to service its short-term debt - brought on by the global credit crunch - in late 2008 led Budapest to seek and receive an IMF-arranged financial assistance package worth over $25 billion. The government's IMF-mandated austerity program has reduced Hungary's projected budget deficit, but the reforms have dampened domestic consumption. Hungary will have meager or negative growth in 2009.

Natural gas - exports:
138 million cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)

Industries:
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Electricity - exports:
10.69 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
8.6% (1993 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.09% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$43.07 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
37.66 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Imports:
$107.5 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
20.18 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 32.4%
services: 62.6% (2005)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.098 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$26.66 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
162,800 bbl/day (2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$79.56 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
70.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$152.4 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$47.65 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:
HUF

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 22.2% (2002)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
$302.6 million (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 60.1%
hydro: 0.5%
nuclear: 39%
other: 0.3% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
10.45 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
2.545 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $76.05 billion
expenditures: $82 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
32,580 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
4.2 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.251 million (2007)

Televisions:
4.42 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.hu

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios:
7.01 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
11.03 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
35 (plus 161 repeaters) (1995)

Telephone system:
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
16 (2000)

Internet hosts:
1.879 million (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 8,057 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,802 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)

Heliports:
5 (2007)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 159,568 km
paved: 70,050 km (30,874 km of interurban roads including 626 km of expressways)
unpaved: 89,518 km (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 10 (2007)

Airports:
46 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in June 2004; 6-month service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 50 (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,391,400
females age 16-49: 2,337,240 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,890,105
females age 16-49: 1,943,422 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Ground Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 62,197
female: 59,267 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.75% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking, are improving, but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy

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Quiz #1
  1. How many states are in the U.S.A.
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