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  Introduction Back To Top

Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 21.03 cu km/yr (9%/59%/32%)
per capita: 2,082 cu m/yr (2001)

Total renewable water resources:
120 cu km (2005)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,185 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 166 km, Slovakia 676 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Map references:

Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 20 00 E

Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km

Central Europe, northwest of Romania

0 km (landlocked)

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Indiana

Irrigated land:
2,300 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Land use:
arable land: 49.58%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 48.36% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,800 (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.18 years
male: 69 years
female: 77.62 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2008)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)

Median age:
total: 39.1 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 41.8 years (2008 est.)

9,930,915 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
-0.254% (2008 est.)

Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)

Death rate:
12.99 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.03 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2001 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.2% (male 774,092/female 730,485)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 3,393,630/female 3,488,011)
65 years and over: 15.6% (male 559,483/female 985,214) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
9.59 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census)

noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador April H. FOLEY
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764

National holiday:
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Air Work Group (works to reduce air pollution in towns and cities); Company For Freedom Rights (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (personal data protection); Danube Circle (protests the building of the Gabchikovo-Nagymaros dam); Green Future (protests the impact of lead contamination of local factory on health of the people); environmentalists: Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society (Magyar Madartani Egyesulet)or MME; Green Alternative (Zold Alternativa)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ferenc SOMOGYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 and 23 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSzP 43.2%, Fidesz-KDNP 42%, SzDSz 6.5%, MDF 5%, other 3.3%; seats by party - MSzP 190, Fidesz-KDNP 164, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 1; seats by party as of September 2008 - MSzP 189, Fidesz-KDNP 162, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 3, vacant 1

Legal system:
based on the German-Austrian legal system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor FODOR]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Ferenc GYURCSANY]

name: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004
election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round

Administrative divisions:
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest

Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Germany 28.1%, Italy 5.6%, France 4.7%, Austria 4.6%, Romania 4.5%, UK 4.5%, Slovakia 4.2%, Poland 4.2% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
37.11 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
7.5% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
14.68 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$8.557 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$144.2 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
66,660 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$20,500 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
21.7% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$109.5 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$203.9 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$164.3 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28 (2005)

Exchange rates:
forints (HUF) per US dollar - 165.89 (2008 est.), 186.16 (2007), 210.39 (2006), 199.58 (2005), 202.75 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
2% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$36.78 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
4.2 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Germany 26.6%, China 7.8%, Russia 6.9%, Austria 6.1%, Italy 4.5%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.3% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.2%
industry: 31.9%
services: 65% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
178,400 bbl/day (2005)

$109.3 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
13.36 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
forint (HUF)

Economy - overview:
Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-25 average. The private sector accounts for more than 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $60 billion since 1989. Hungary's impending inability to service its short-term debt - brought on by the global credit crunch - in late 2008 led Budapest to seek and receive an IMF-arranged financial assistance package worth over $25 billion. The government's IMF-mandated austerity program has reduced Hungary's projected budget deficit, but the reforms have dampened domestic consumption. Hungary will have meager or negative growth in 2009.

Natural gas - exports:
138 million cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)

mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Electricity - exports:
10.69 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
8.6% (1993 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.09% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$43.07 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
37.66 billion kWh (2007 est.)

$107.5 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
20.18 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 32.4%
services: 62.6% (2005)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.098 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$26.66 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
162,800 bbl/day (2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$79.56 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
70.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$152.4 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$47.65 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 22.2% (2002)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)

Economic aid - recipient:
$302.6 million (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 60.1%
hydro: 0.5%
nuclear: 39%
other: 0.3% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
10.45 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
2.545 billion cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $76.05 billion
expenditures: $82 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
32,580 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
4.2 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.251 million (2007)

4.42 million (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)

7.01 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
11.03 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
35 (plus 161 repeaters) (1995)

Telephone system:
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
16 (2000)

Internet hosts:
1.879 million (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2008)

gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2007)

total: 8,057 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,802 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)

5 (2007)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2007)

total: 159,568 km
paved: 70,050 km (30,874 km of interurban roads including 626 km of expressways)
unpaved: 89,518 km (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 26
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 10 (2007)

46 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in June 2004; 6-month service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 50 (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,391,400
females age 16-49: 2,337,240 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,890,105
females age 16-49: 1,943,422 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Ground Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 62,197
female: 59,267 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.75% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking, are improving, but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy

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