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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
2,838 cu km (1999)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Map references:
Southeast Asia

Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E

Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Geography - note:
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

Area:
total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Location:
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Coastline:
54,716 km

Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Irrigated land:
45,000 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Natural hazards:
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires

Land use:
arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
2.34 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
110,000 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.46 years
male: 67.98 years
female: 73.07 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

Net migration rate:
-1.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)

Median age:
total: 27.2 years
male: 26.7 years
female: 27.7 years (2008 est.)

Population:
237,512,352 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2006)

Population growth rate:
1.175% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)

Death rate:
6.24 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 31.04 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
2,400 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.4% (male 34,343,198/female 33,175,135)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 78,330,830/female 77,812,339)
65 years and over: 5.8% (male 6,151,305/female 7,699,548) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
19.24 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)

Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Government type:
republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Indonesian Women's Coalition (Koalisi Perempuan - human rights group); Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; National Alliance for Freedom of Religion and Faith; Oil Palm Watch (environmental)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador SUDJADNAN Parnohadiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching president and in amending constitution; consists of members of DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held on 9 April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Independence:
17 August 1945 (declared)
note: recognized by the Netherlands on 27 December 1949; in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

Political parties and leaders:
Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]

Capital:
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones

Constitution:
August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president were elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held on 8 July 2009)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%

Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat (Irian Jaya Barat), Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 465 regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Japan 20.7%, US 10.2%, Singapore 9.2%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.6%, Malaysia 4.5%, India 4.3% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
110.7 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
8% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
$2.485 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$143.5 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8.2% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
470,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,900 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
25.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$170.2 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$932.1 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$496.8 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2005)

Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,558.1 (2008 est.), 9,056 (2007 est.), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
5.9% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$47.78 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
112 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Singapore 13.2%, China 11.5%, Japan 8.8%, Malaysia 8.6%, US 6.4%, Thailand 5.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, South Korea 4.3%, Australia 4% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.5% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.5%
industry: 45.6%
services: 40.8% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
500,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Exports:
$141 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
23.4 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO, but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has been declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and improved capital market supervision. Indonesia's new investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak, and despite efforts to broaden and deepen capital markets, they remain underdeveloped. Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget. The onset of the global financial crisis relieved inflation but also brought a host of new problems: a rout in the stock market, a difficult environment for bond issuance, lower prices for Indonesia's commodities exports, and prospects for lower growth overall.

Natural gas - exports:
32.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
17.8% (2006)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13.86% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$127 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
125.7 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$114.3 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
4.37 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 42.1%
industry: 18.6%
services: 39.3% (2006 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.659 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$51.74 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
1.219 million bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$4.277 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
30.1% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$63.46 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$211.7 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:
IDR

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2002)

Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $2.524 billion (2006 est.)
note: Indonesia ended 2006 with $67 billion in official foreign debt (about 25% of GDP), with Japan ($25 billion), the World Bank ($8.5 billion) and the Asian Development Bank ($8.4 billion) as the largest creditors; about $6 billion in grant assistance was pledged to rebuild Aceh after the December 2004 tsunami; President YUDHOYONO disbanded the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI) donor forum in January 2007

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 86.9%
hydro: 10.5%
nuclear: 0%
other: 2.6% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
56 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $90.17 billion
expenditures: $96.87 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
1.044 million bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
13 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
17.828 million (2007)

Televisions:
13.75 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.id

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Radios:
31.5 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
81.835 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)

Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
24 (2000)

Internet hosts:
753,200 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
21,579 km (2008)

Pipelines:
condensate 963 km; condensate/gas 81 km; gas 9,003 km; oil 7,471 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 1,365 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Heliports:
17 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 971
by type: bulk carrier 54, cargo 514, chemical tanker 35, container 80, liquefied gas 7, passenger 44, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 10, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4
foreign-owned: 43 (China 2, France 1, Germany 1, Japan 6, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 27, Taiwan 2, UAE 2)
registered in other countries: 114 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 1, Hong Kong 7, Liberia 2, Mongolia 1, Panama 31, Singapore 66, unknown 2) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 158
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 39 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 391,009 km
paved: 216,714 km
unpaved: 174,295 km (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 494
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 462 (2007)

Airports:
652 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 63,800,825
females age 16-49: 61,729,717 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 52,367,788
females age 16-49: 52,129,123 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 2,181,303
female: 2,110,397 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; Timor-Leste-Indonesia Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the north and alignment with Australian claims in the south; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy

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Quiz #2
  1. What famous canal was built at the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans?
  Atlantic-Pacific Canal
  Transcontinental Canal
  Panama Canal
  Erie Canal
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