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  Senegal   
Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982, but the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. He was reelected in February 2007, but complaints of fraud led opposition parties to boycott June 2007 legislative polls. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 2.22 cu km/yr (4%/3%/93%)
per capita: 190 cu m/yr (2002)

Total renewable water resources:
39.4 cu km (1987)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Map references:
Africa

Geographic coordinates:
14 00 N, 14 00 W

Natural resources:
fish, phosphates, iron ore

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m

Terrain:
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Geography - note:
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

Area:
total: 196,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Coastline:
531 km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Dakota

Irrigated land:
1,200 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Natural hazards:
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Land use:
arable land: 12.51%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 87.25% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
4.86 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.8% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
44,000 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.08 years
male: 55.7 years
female: 58.5 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 39.3%
male: 51.1%
female: 29.2% (2002 est.)

Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%

Median age:
total: 18.8 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 19 years (2008 est.)

Population:
12,853,259 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
5% of GDP (2006)

Population growth rate:
2.58% (2008 est.)

Languages:
French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka

Death rate:
10.72 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 58.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 62.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,500 (2003 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.9% (male 2,717,257/female 2,668,602)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 3,524,683/female 3,552,643)
65 years and over: 3% (male 183,188/female 206,886) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
36.52 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Muslim 94%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%

Nationality:
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcia S. BERNICAT
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-829-2100
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991

National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Amadou Lamine BA
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consisting of the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote with the remaining members elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and the Senate reinstituted in 2007 (100 seats; 35 indirectly elected with the remaining 65 members to be appointed by the president)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 3 June 2007 (next to be held 2012); note - the National Assembly in December 2005 voted to postpone legislative elections originally scheduled for 2006; legislative elections were first rescheduled to coincide with the 25 February 2007 presidential elections and later rescheduled for 3 June 2007; the June election was boycotted by 12 opposition parties, including the former ruling Socialist Party, that resulted in a record-low, 35-percent voter turnout; Senate - last held 19 August 2007 (next to be held - NA)
election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 131, other 19; Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDS 34, AJ/PADS 1, 65 appointed by the president

Legal system:
based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Independence:
4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation

Political parties and leaders:
African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky Sall]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [Elhadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Rewmi Party [Idrissa Seck]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]

Capital:
name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 17 26 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
adopted 7 January 2001

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Cheikh Hadjibou SOUMARE (since 19 June 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president in the first round of voting; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%

Administrative divisions:
11 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Mali 18.9%, France 9.1%, Italy 5.9%, India 5.7%, Gambia, The 5.2% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
1.657 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$2.078 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$2.528 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
48% (2007 est.)

Oil - exports:
4,298 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
25.4% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$2.97 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$22.98 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$13.9 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.3 (2001)

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar 438.77 (2008 est.), 481.83 (2007), 522.89 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro

GDP - real growth rate:
4.8% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$2.842 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
4.973 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
France 22.2%, Netherlands 10%, China 7.4%, UK 6.2%, Thailand 5.2%, Belgium 4.5% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16%
industry: 19.4%
services: 64.6% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
40,450 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$1.904 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
50 million cu m (2006 est.)

Currency (code):
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Economy - overview:
In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2008. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. High unemployment, however, continues to prompt illegal migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe. Senegal was also beset by an energy crisis that caused widespread blackouts in 2006 and 2007. The phosphate industry has struggled for two years to secure capital, and reduced output has directly impacted GDP. In 2007, Senegal signed agreements for major new mining concessions for iron, zircon, and gold with foreign companies. Firms from Dubai have agreed to manage and modernize Dakar's maritime port, and create a new special economic zone. Senegal still relies heavily upon outside donor assistance. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief program, Senegal has benefited from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector debt. In 2007, Senegal and the IMF agreed to a new, non-disbursing, Policy Support Initiative program.

Natural gas - exports:
NA cu m

Imports - commodities:
food and beverages, capital goods, fuels

Industries:
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining; iron ore, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
54% (2001 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA

Stock of quasi money:
$1.579 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
2.28 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$4.654 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
NA cu m

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.765 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
36,200 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Public debt:
21.4% of GDP (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
XOF

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 33.4% (2001)

Exports - commodities:
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton

Economic aid - recipient:
$477 million (2007 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
NA cu m

Natural gas - production:
50 million cu m (2006 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.141 billion
expenditures: $3.799 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2005 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
820,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
269,100 (2007)

Televisions:
361,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
.sn

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)

Radios:
1.24 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.123 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
4 (2007)

Telephone system:
general assessment: good system
domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2002)

Internet hosts:
217 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
1,000 km (primarily on Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 43 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 906 km
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000 meter gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Dakar

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 13,576 km
paved: 3,972 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,604 km (2003)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

Airports:
20 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 2,943,619
females age 16-49: 2,955,179 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,866,602
females age 16-49: 1,947,076 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Army, Senegalese Navy (Marine Senegalaise), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 141,832
female: 139,541 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.4% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Guinea-Bissau residents fled into Senegal in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 19,630 (Mauritania)
IDPs: 22,400 (approximately 65% of the IDP population returned in 2005, but new displacement is occurring due to clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis

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