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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
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  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
479 cu km (1999)

Land boundaries:
0 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Climate:
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

Map references:
Southeast Asia

Geographic coordinates:
13 00 N, 122 00 E

Natural resources:
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

Terrain:
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Geography - note:
the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait

Area:
total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km

Location:
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam

Coastline:
36,289 km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Arizona

Irrigated land:
15,500 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Natural hazards:
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
3.32 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
9,000 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.8 years
male: 67.89 years
female: 73.85 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2000 census)

Net migration rate:
-1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

Median age:
total: 22.3 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 22.8 years (2008 est.)

Population:
96,061,680 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
2.5% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
1.991% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan

Death rate:
5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35.5% (male 17,392,780/female 16,708,255)
15-64 years: 60.4% (male 28,986,232/female 29,076,329)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,682,485/female 2,215,602) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
26.42 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)

Nationality:
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie A. KENNEY
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 301-2399

National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
AKBAYAN [Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Acmad TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Crispin BELTRAN and Rafael MARIANO]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Sunny Rose MADAMBA, Ernesto PABLO, and Edgar VALDEZ]; AVE [Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE and Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Guillermo CUA]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Renato MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Philippines [Ernesto GIDAYA]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Willy C. GAA
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)

International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (as a result of May 2007 election it has 239 seats including 218 members representing districts and 21 sectoral party-list members representing special minorities elected on the basis of 1 seat for every 2% of the total vote but limited to 3 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010); House of Representatives - elections last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 4, LP 4, Nacionalista 3, NPC 2, Kampi 1, independents 1, others 8; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 90, Kampi 52, NPC 27, LP 19, Party-list 22, independents 3, others 25

Legal system:
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice) and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star representing the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897; in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top

Independence:
12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas

Political parties and leaders:
Genuine Opposition or GO (coalition of oppositon parties formed to contest the 2007 elections); Kabalikat Ng Malayang Pilipino or Kampi [Ronaldo PUNO]; Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista [Manuel VILLAR]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA]; Pwersa Ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA]

Capital:
name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO) elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%

Administrative divisions:
80 provinces and 120 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2009)

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
US 17%, Japan 14.5%, Hong Kong 11.5%, China 11.4%, Netherlands 8.2%, Singapore 6.2%, Malaysia 5%, Germany 4.3% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
47.04 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.28% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
$2.687 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$65.23 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
7.4% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
41,160 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,400 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
16.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$65.66 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$327.2 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$172.3 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
45.8 (2006)

Exchange rates:
Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar - 44.439 (2008 est.), 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006), 55.086 (2005), 56.04 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$21.27 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
36.82 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
US 14.1%, Japan 12.3%, Singapore 11.2%, Taiwan 7.3%, China 7.2%, Saudi Arabia 6.4%, South Korea 5.9%, Malaysia 4.1%, Thailand 4.1% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.8%
industry: 31.9%
services: 54.3% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
355,800 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$50.99 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
2.2 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Currency (code):
Philippine peso (PHP)

Economy - overview:
The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007 with real GDP growth exceeding 7%, but growth slowed to 4.5% in 2008 as a result of the world financial crisis. High government spending has contributed to the growth, but a resilient service sector and large remittances from the millions of Filipinos who work abroad have played an increasingly important role. Economic growth has averaged 5% since President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office in 2001. Nevertheless, the Philippines will need still higher, sustained growth to make progress in alleviating poverty, given its high population growth and unequal distribution of income. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening expenditures. Declining fiscal deficits, tapering debt and debt service ratios, as well as recent efforts to increase spending on infrastructure and social services have heightened optimism over Philippine economic prospects. Although the general macroeconomic outlook has improved significantly, the Philippines continues to face important challenges and must maintain the reform momentum in order to catch up with regional competitors, improve employment opportunities, and alleviate poverty. Longer-term fiscal stability will require more sustainable revenue sources, rather than non-recurring revenues from privatization.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic

Industries:
electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
30% (2003 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
8.69% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$65.85 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
56.51 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Imports:
$63.42 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
138.5 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 35%
industry: 15%
services: 50% (2007 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$36.15 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
340,100 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$5.564 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
56.1% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$20.78 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$103.2 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:
PHP

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)

Exports - commodities:
semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits

Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $451.4 million in commitments (2006)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 55.6%
hydro: 17.5%
nuclear: 0%
other: 26.9% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
2.2 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $26.75 billion
expenditures: $28.2 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
23,930 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
5.3 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.633 million (2006)

Televisions:
3.7 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.ph

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 381, FM 628, shortwave 4 (each shortwave station operates on multiple frequencies in the language of the target audience) (2007)

Radios:
11.5 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
51.795 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
250 (plus 1,501 CATV networks) (2007)

Telephone system:
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density about 60 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
33 (2000)

Internet hosts:
283,579 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 565 km; oil 135 km; refined products 105 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 897 km
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila, Nasipit Harbor

Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Heliports:
2 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 391
by type: bulk carrier 75, cargo 125, carrier 16, chemical tanker 17, container 6, liquefied gas 5, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 161 (Bermuda 34, China 4, Greece 4, Hong Kong 1, Japan 81, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 23, Norway 10, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1, Indonesia 1, Panama 7) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 84
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 10 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 200,037 km
paved: 19,804 km
unpaved: 180,233 km (2003)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 171
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 99 (2007)

Airports:
255 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 23,547,252
females age 16-49: 23,177,487 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 18,232,050
females age 16-49: 19,827,538 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 1,012,779
female: 977,030 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Philippines claims sovereignty over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited

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Quiz #2
  1. What famous canal was built at the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans?
  Atlantic-Pacific Canal
  Transcontinental Canal
  Panama Canal
  Erie Canal
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