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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 6.63 cu km/yr (4%/1%/95%)
per capita: 316 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
4.1 cu km (1997)

Land boundaries:
total: 1,746 km
border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

Map references:
Middle East

Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 48 00 E

Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m

Terrain:
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula

Geography - note:
strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

Area:
total: 527,970 sq km
land: 527,970 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Coastline:
1,906 km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming

Irrigated land:
5,500 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Natural hazards:
sandstorms and dust storms in summer

Land use:
arable land: 2.91%
permanent crops: 0.25%
other: 96.84% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
6.41 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
12,000 (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.9 years
male: 60.96 years
female: 64.94 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50.2%
male: 70.5%
female: 30% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
NA (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans

Median age:
total: 16.7 years
male: 16.7 years
female: 16.8 years (2008 est.)

Population:
23,013,376 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
9.6% of GDP (2001)

Population growth rate:
3.46% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Arabic

Death rate:
7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 56.27 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.78 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 11 years
female: 7 years (2005)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46.2% (male 5,415,385/female 5,218,237)
15-64 years: 51.2% (male 5,996,202/female 5,795,779)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 284,195/female 303,578) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
42.42 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shia), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu

Nationality:
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen A. SECHE
embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
FAX: [967] (1) 303-182

National holiday:
Unification Day, 22 May (1990)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Muslim Brotherhood; Women National Committee
other: conservative tribal groups

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahab Abdallah al-HAJRI
chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017

International organization participation:
AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Legislative branch:
a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 228, Islah 47, YSP 7, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independents 14

Legal system:
based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band

Independence:
22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman
former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]

Political parties and leaders:
General People's Congress or GPC [Abdul-Kader BAJAMMAL]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Mohammed Abdullah AL-YADOUMI (acting)]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties

Capital:
name: Sanaa
geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad MUJAWWAR (since 31 March 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 20 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2013); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 77.2%, Faysal BIN SHAMLAN 21.8%

Administrative divisions:
19 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan, Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a', Shabwah, Ta'izz
note: for electoral and administrative purposes, the capital city of Sanaa is treated as an additional governorate

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
China 23.3%, India 20.4%, Thailand 19.1%, Japan 7.2%, UAE 5%, US 4.2% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
3.804 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
NA

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$2.175 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$6.472 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
35% (2003 est.)

Oil - exports:
336,600 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,600 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
26.3% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$2.224 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$60.48 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$27.56 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
37.7 (2005)

Exchange rates:
Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar - 199.76 (2008 est.), 199.14 (2007), 197.18 (2006), 192.67 (2005), 184.78 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.2% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$3.076 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
6.494 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
UAE 15.1%, China 11.6%, US 7.8%, Saudi Arabia 7.1%, Kuwait 5.3%, Germany 4.8% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
18% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.4%
industry: 52.4%
services: 38.1% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
62,850 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$9.234 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
Yemeni rial (YER)

Economy - overview:
Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, reported average annual growth in the range of 3-4% from 2000 through 2007. In 2008, growth dropped below 3% as the price of oil declined and the slowing global economy reduced demand for oil. Yemen's economic fortunes depend mostly on declining oil resources, but the country is trying to diversify its earnings. In 2006 Yemen began an economic reform program designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. As a result of the program, international donors pledged about $5 billion for development projects. A liquefied natural gas facility is scheduled to open in 2009. Yemen has limited exposure to the international financial system and no capital markets, however, the global financial crisis probably will reduce international aid in 2009.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Industries:
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
45.2% (2003)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
18% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$4.526 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
5.017 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$9.215 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
3 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force

Natural gas - proved reserves:
478.5 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.306 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
135,400 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Public debt:
31.8% of GDP (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
YER

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 25.9% (2003)

Exports - commodities:
crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish

Economic aid - recipient:
$2.3 billion (2003-07 disbursements)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $9.097 billion
expenditures: $10.55 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
320,600 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
320,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
968,300 (2006)

Televisions:
470,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
.ye

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios:
1.05 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.978 million (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
3 (including one Egypt-based station that broadcasts in Yemen); plus several repeaters (2007)

Telephone system:
general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards
international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)

Internet hosts:
167 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Pipelines:
gas 71 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,309 km (2007)

Ports and terminals:
Aden, Hudaydah, Mukalla

Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden are high risk for piracy; numerous vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crew, passengers, and cargo are held for ransom

Merchant marine:
total: 4
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 13 (North Korea 2, Moldova 1, Panama 6, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Sierra Leone 2, unknown 1) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 71,300 km
paved: 6,200 km
unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 4 (2007)

Airports:
50 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
voluntary military service program authorized in 2001; 2-year service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,080,038
females age 16-49: 4,852,555 (2008 est.)

Military - note:
a Coast Guard was established in 2002

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 3,585,947
females age 16-49: 3,619,195 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Yemen Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Jamahiriya al Yemeniya; includes Air Defense Force) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 268,468
female: 258,196 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
6.6% of GDP (2006)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 91,587 (Somalia) (2007)

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