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Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Following the breakup of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, France administered Syria until its independence in 1946. The country lacked political stability, however, and experienced a series of military coups during its first decades. Syria united with Egypt in February 1958 to form the United Arab Republic. In September 1961, the two entities separated, and the Syrian Arab Republic was reestablished. In November 1970, Hafiz al-ASAD, a member of the Socialist Ba'th Party and the minority Alawite sect, seized power in a bloodless coup and brought political stability to the country. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel. During the 1990s, Syria and Israel held occasional peace talks over its return. Following the death of President al-ASAD, his son, Bashar al-ASAD, was approved as president by popular referendum in July 2000. Syrian troops - stationed in Lebanon since 1976 in an ostensible peacekeeping role - were withdrawn in April 2005. During the July-August 2006 conflict between Israel and Hizballah, Syria placed its military forces on alert but did not intervene directly on behalf of its ally Hizballah.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 19.95 cu km/yr (3%/2%/95%)
per capita: 1,048 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
46.1 cu km (1997)

Land boundaries:
total: 2,253 km
border countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Climate:
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus

Map references:
Middle East

Geographic coordinates:
35 00 N, 38 00 E

Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m
highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m

Terrain:
primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west

Geography - note:
there are 42 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 2005 est.)

Area:
total: 185,180 sq km
land: 184,050 sq km
water: 1,130 sq km
note: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territory

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey

Coastline:
193 km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than North Dakota

Irrigated land:
13,330 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable water

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm

Natural hazards:
dust storms, sandstorms

Land use:
arable land: 24.8%
permanent crops: 4.47%
other: 70.73% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
3.21 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 500 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.9 years
male: 69.53 years
female: 72.35 years (2008 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 79.6%
male: 86%
female: 73.6% (2004 census)

Net migration rate:
NA (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

Median age:
total: 21.4 years
male: 21.3 years
female: 21.5 years (2008 est.)

Population:
19,747,586
note: in addition, about 40,000 people live in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights - 20,000 Arabs (18,000 Druze and 2,000 Alawites) and about 20,000 Israeli settlers (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (1999)

Population growth rate:
2.189% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood

Death rate:
4.68 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 26.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 200 (2003 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36.2% (male 3,679,473/female 3,467,096)
15-64 years: 60.5% (male 6,119,459/female 5,822,376)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 310,838/female 348,344) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
26.57 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Sunni Muslim 74%, other Muslim (includes Alawite, Druze) 16%, Christian (various denominations) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

Nationality:
noun: Syrian(s)
adjective: Syrian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maura CONNELLY
embassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansour Street, No. 2, Damascus
mailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascus
telephone: [963] (11) 3391-4444
FAX: [963] (11) 3391-3999

National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 April (1946)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic under an authoritarian military-dominated regime

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Damascus Declaration National Council [Riyad SEIF, secretary general] (a broad alliance of opposition groups and individuals including: Committee for Revival of Civil Society [Michel KILO, Riyad SEIF]; Communist Action Party [Fateh JAMOUS]; Kurdish Democratic Alliance; Kurdish Democratic Front; Liberal Nationalists' Movement; National Democratic Rally; and Syrian Human Rights Society or HRAS [Fawed FAWUZ]); National Salvation Front (alliance between former Vice President Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, the SMB, and other small opposition groups); Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Sadr al-Din al-BAYANUNI] (operates in exile in London; endorsed the Damascus Declaration, but is not an official member)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Imad MUSTAFA
chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313
FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548

International organization participation:
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Council or Majlis al-Shaab (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 22-23 April 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPF 172, independents 78

Legal system:
based on a combination of French and Ottoman civil law; Islamic law is used in the family court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black, colors associated with the Arab Liberation flag; two small, green, five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; former flag of the United Arab Republic where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egypt; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and that of Egypt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band; the current design dates to 1980

Independence:
17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic
conventional short form: Syria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah
local short form: Suriyah
former: United Arab Republic (with Egypt)

Political parties and leaders:
legal parties: National Progressive Front or NPF [President Bashar al-ASAD, Dr. Suleiman QADDAH] (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr Al-DIN]; Syrian Arab Socialist Union or ASU [Safwan QUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSU]; Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL])
opposition parties not legally recognized: Arab Democratic Socialist Union Party [Hasan Abdul AZIM]; Arab Socialist Movement; Democratic Ba'th Party [Ibrahim MAHKOS]; National Democratic Front [Hasan Abdul AZIM, spokesman] (includes five parties - Arab Democratic Socialist Union Party [Hasan Abdul AZIM], Arab Socialist Movement, Democratic Ba'th Party [Ibrahim MAHKOS], People's Democratic Party [Riad al TURK], Revolutionary Workers' Party [Abdul Hafeez al HAFEZ]); People's Democratic Party; Revolutionary Workers' Party [Abdul Hafeez al HAFEZ]
Kurdish parties (considered illegal): Azadi Party [Kheirudin MURAD]; Future Party [Masha'l TAMMO]; Kurdish Democratic Alliance (includes four parties); Kurdish Democratic Front (includes three parties); Yekiti Party [Hasan SALEH, Fu'ad ALEYKO]
other parties: Nahda Party [Abdul Aziz al MISLET]; Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]

Capital:
name: Damascus
geographic coordinates: 33 30 N, 36 18 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins 1 April; ends 30 September

Constitution:
13 March 1973

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice President Farouk al-SHARA (since 11 February 2006) oversees foreign policy; Vice President Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 March 2006) oversees cultural policy
head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Naji al-UTRI (since 10 September 2003); Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs Abdallah al-DARDARI (since 14 June 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president approved by popular referendum for a second seven-year term (no term limits); referendum last held on 27 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2014); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, and deputy prime ministers
election results: Bashar al-ASAD approved as president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.6%

Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus

Judicial branch:
Supreme Judicial Council (appoints and dismisses judges; headed by the president); national level - Supreme Constitutional Court (adjudicates electoral disputes and rules on constitutionality of laws and decrees; justices appointed for four-year terms by the President); Court of Cassation; Appeals Courts (Appeals Courts represent an intermediate level between the Court of Cassation and local level courts); local level - Magistrate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Juvenile Courts; Customs Courts; specialized courts - Economic Security Courts (hear cases related to economic crimes); Supreme State Security Court (hear cases related to national security); Personal Status Courts (religious; hear cases related to marriage and divorce)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Iraq 30%, Lebanon 10%, Germany 9.7%, Italy 8%, Egypt 5.5%, Saudi Arabia 5.2%, France 4.9% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
39.5 billion kWh (2007)

Electricity - imports:
1.4 billion kWh (2007)

Current account balance:
-$192 million (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$6.72 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
9% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
155,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,900 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
22.6% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$50.92 billion (31 December 2006)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$96.53 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$44.49 billion (2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
Syrian pounds (SYP) per US dollar - 46.5281 (2008 est.), 50.0085 (2007), 51.689 (2006), 50 (2005), 48.5 (2004)
note: data for 2004-06 are the public sector rate; data for 2002-03 are the parallel market rate in 'Amman and Beirut; the official rate for repaying loans was 11.25 Syrian pounds per US dollars during 2004-06,

GDP - real growth rate:
2.4% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$14.29 billion (30 September 2008)

Labor force:
5.547 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Saudi Arabia 12%, China 8.7%, Egypt 6.2%, Italy 6%, UAE 5.9%, Ukraine 4.8%, Russia 4.8%, Germany 4.7%, Iran 4.3% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
14.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 22.5%
industry: 27.9%
services: 49.6% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
160,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)

Exports:
$13.12 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
4.4 billion cu m (2008 est.)

Currency (code):
Syrian pound (SYP)

Economy - overview:
The Syrian economy grew by an estimated 2.4% in real terms in 2008 led by the petroleum and agricultural sectors, which together account for about one-half of GDP. Higher crude oil prices countered declining oil production and led to higher budgetary and export receipts. Damascus has implemented modest economic reforms in the past few years, including cutting lending interest rates, opening private banks, consolidating all of the multiple exchange rates, raising prices on some subsidized items, most notably gasoline and cement, and establishing the Damascus Stock Exchange - which is set to begin operations in 2009. In October 2007, for example, Damascus raised the price of subsidized gasoline by 20%, then instituted a rationing system in 2008. In addition, President ASAD signed legislative decrees to encourage corporate ownership reform, and to allow the Central Bank to issue Treasury bills and bonds for government debt. Nevertheless, the economy remains highly controlled by the government. Long-run economic constraints include declining oil production, high unemployment and inflation, rising budget deficits, and increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use in agriculture, rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and water pollution.

Natural gas - exports:
NA cu m

Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, electric power machinery, food and livestock, metal and metal products, chemicals and chemical products, plastics, yarn, paper

Industries:
petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, cement, oil seeds crushing, car assembly

Electricity - exports:
991 million kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
11.9% (2006 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
7% (6 November 2008)

Stock of quasi money:
$25.67 billion (30 September 2008)

Electricity - production:
40.5 billion kWh (2007)

Imports:
$14.32 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 19.2%
industry: 14.5%
services: 66.3% (2006 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
240.7 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$6.104 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
229,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)

Public debt:
41.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
SYP

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
crude oil, minerals, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton fiber, textiles, clothing, meat and live animals, wheat

Economic aid - recipient:
$213 million (2008 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 57.6%
hydro: 42.4%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
6.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $10.9 billion
expenditures: $13.77 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
381,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
3.47 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
3.452 million (2007)

Televisions:
1.05 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.sy

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 14, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios:
4.15 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
6.7 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
44 (plus 17 repeaters) (1995)

Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology
domestic: the number of fixed-line connections has increased markedly since 2000; mobile-cellular service growing rapidly and teledensity about 35 wireless telephones per 100 persons; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network
international: country code - 963; submarine cable connection to Cyprus; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)

Internet hosts:
7,857 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
900 km (not economically significant) (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 2,794 km; oil 2,000 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 2,711 km
standard gauge: 2,460 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 251 km 1.050-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Latakia, Tartus

Heliports:
7 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 77
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 65, carrier 4, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 7 (Jordan 2, Lebanon 3, Romania 2)
registered in other countries: 196 (Barbados 1, Bolivia 2, Cambodia 48, Comoros 4, Cyprus 2, Dominica 2, Georgia 49, Hong Kong 1, North Korea 1, Lebanon 2, Libya 2, Malta 6, Moldova 1, Panama 32, Saint Kitts and Nevis 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Sierra Leone 18, Slovakia 2, Togo 2, unknown 1) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 97,401 km
paved: 19,490 km (includes 1,103 km of expressways)
unpaved: 77,911 km (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 64
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 52 (2007)

Airports:
90 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 30 months (18 months in the Syrian Arab Navy); women are not conscripted but may volunteer to serve (2004)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,251,875
females age 16-49: 4,966,367 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,242,401
females age 16-49: 4,218,648 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Syrian Armed Forces: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air and Air Defense Forces (includes Air Defense Command) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 215,734
female: 203,106 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied with the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shaba'a farms in the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation settles border dispute with Jordan; approximately two million Iraqis have fled the conflict in Iraq with the majority taking refuge in Syria and Jordan

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 1-1.4 million (Iraq); 522,100 (Palestinian Refugees (UNRWA))
IDPs: 305,000 (most displaced from Golan Heights during 1967 Arab-Israeli War) (2007)

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Syria is a destination and transit country for women and children trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; a significant number of women and children in the large and expanding Iraqi refugee community in Syria are reportedly forced into commercial sexual exploitation by Iraqi gangs or, in some cases, their families; women from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Ethiopia, and Sierra Leone are recruited for work in Syria as domestic servants, but some face conditions of involuntary servitude, including long hours, non-payment of wages, withholding of passports, restrictions on movement, threats, and physical or sexual abuse
tier rating: Tier 3 - Syria again failed to report any law enforcement efforts to punish trafficking offenses in 2007; in addition, the government did not offer protection services to victims of trafficking and may have arrested, prosecuted, or deported some victims for prostitution or immigration violations; Syria has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)

Illicit drugs:
a transit point for opiates, hashish, and cocaine bound for regional and Western markets; weak anti-money-laundering controls and bank privatization may leave it vulnerable to money laundering

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