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  Tajikistan   
Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbekistan SSR to newly formed Tajikistan SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Sughd province. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and it is now in the process of strengthening its democracy and transitioning to a free market economy after its 1992-97 civil war. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 11.96 cu km/yr (4%/5%/92%)
per capita: 1,837 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
99.7 cu km (1997)

Land boundaries:
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Map references:
Asia

Geographic coordinates:
39 00 N, 71 00 E

Natural resources:
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m

Terrain:
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Geography - note:
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

Area:
total: 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Location:
Central Asia, west of China

Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Irrigated land:
7,220 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Natural hazards:
earthquakes and floods

Land use:
arable land: 6.52%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.59% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
3.04 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 200 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.97 years
male: 61.95 years
female: 68.15 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)

Net migration rate:
-1.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)

Median age:
total: 21.6 years
male: 21.2 years
female: 22.1 years (2008 est.)

Population:
7,211,884 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (2006)

Population growth rate:
1.893% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

Death rate:
6.94 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 42.31 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2001 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 10 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.6% (male 1,270,289/female 1,226,954)
15-64 years: 61.7% (male 2,203,720/female 2,244,660)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 113,156/female 153,105) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
27.18 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50

National holiday:
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
splinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party: Democratic Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT); Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's SPT)
unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091

International organization participation:
ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 25 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010); Assembly of Representatives 27 February and 13 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5

Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe

Independence:
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NARZIEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]

Capital:
name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
6 November 1994

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%

Administrative divisions:
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Netherlands 38.9%, Turkey 32.5%, Russia 6.6%, Uzbekistan 5.9%, Iran 5.1% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
17.9 billion kWh (2007)

Central bank discount rate:
15% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
4.36 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$584 million (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$1.681 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
2.4% official rate; actual unemployment is higher (2007 est.)

Oil - exports:
247.7 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
13.6% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$417.4 million (31 December 2006)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$13.04 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.788 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.6 (2003)

Exchange rates:
Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 3.4563 (2008 est.), 3.4418 (2007), 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.5% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$91.59 million (31 December 2006)

Labor force:
2.1 million (2007)

Imports - partners:
Russia 32.1%, Kazakhstan 13.1%, China 10.8%, Uzbekistan 8.4% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
21% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 29.4%
services: 47.6% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
7,600 bbl/day (2007)

Exports:
$1.675 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
842 million cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
somoni (TJS)

Economy - overview:
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, but this sector is burdened with debt and an obsolete infrastructure. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, widespread unemployment, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - built with Russian investment - and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. If finished according to Tajik plans, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan. While, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped to roughly 8% in 2005-07, and 4.5% in 2008, as the effects of the international financial crisis began to register - mainly in the form of lower prices for key commodities.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs

Industries:
aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

Electricity - exports:
4.259 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
60% (2007 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
22.87% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$161 million (31 December 2006)

Electricity - production:
17.4 billion kWh (2007)

Imports:
$3.798 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
12 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 67.2%
industry: 7.5%
services: 25.3% (2000 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$394 million (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
31,590 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$8.463 billion (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$88.93 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
TJS

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities:
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles

Economic aid - recipient:
$241.4 million from US (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 1.9%
hydro: 98.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
810 million cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
32 million cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $872.3 million
expenditures: $886.8 million (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
281.1 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
19,500 (2005)

Telephones - main lines in use:
280,200 (2005)

Televisions:
820,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
.tj

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)

Radios:
1.291 million (1991)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
265,000 (2005)

Television broadcast stations:
6 (2006)

Telephone system:
general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network
domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; cellular telephone use is growing but geographic coverage remains limited
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2006)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
4 (2002)

Internet hosts:
1,158 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 27,767 km (2000)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2007)

Airports:
26 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,897,356
females age 16-49: 1,911,594 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,391,287
females age 16-49: 1,561,826 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Force (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 84,137
female: 81,777 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Tajikistan is a source country for women trafficked through Kyrgyzstan and Russia to the UAE, Turkey, and Russia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Russia and Kazakhstan for the purpose of forced labor, primarily in the construction and agricultural industries; boys and girls are trafficked internally for various purposes, including forced labor and forced begging
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Tajikistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking, especially efforts to investigate, prosecute, convict, and sentence traffickers; despite evidence of low- and mid-level officials' complicity in trafficking, the government did not punish any public officials for trafficking complicity during 2007; lack of capacity and poor coordination between government institutions remained key obstacles to effective anti-trafficking efforts (2008)

Illicit drugs:
major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates

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