ExchangeRate.com Logo
Login | Register |  My Account |   |   |   |  Suggest XR to your friends Print this page
Exchange Rate Home >> Country Info >> Togo

   | Post | View
Select Country:
  Togo   
Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
14.7 cu km (2001)

Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Map references:
Africa

Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 1 10 E

Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

Terrain:
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Geography - note:
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

Area:
total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Coastline:
56 km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia

Irrigated land:
70 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Natural hazards:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Land use:
arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
4.85 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
4.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
110,000 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 58.28 years
male: 56.2 years
female: 60.43 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
NA (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%

Median age:
total: 18.6 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 19 years (2008 est.)

Population:
5,858,673
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
2.6% of GDP (2002)

Population growth rate:
2.717% (2008 est.)

Languages:
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)

Death rate:
9.48 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 57.66 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.01 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
10,000 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 11 years
female: 7 years (2000)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.7% (male 1,226,320/female 1,218,182)
15-64 years: 55.6% (male 1,588,354/female 1,666,274)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 63,508/female 96,035) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
36.66 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%

Nationality:
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia McMahon HAWKINS
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20512-2300
telephone: [228] 261-5470
FAX: [228] 261-5501

National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)

Suffrage:
NA years of age; universal (adult)

Government type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lorempo LANDJERGUE
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

International organization participation:
ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4

Legal system:
French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Flag description:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Independence:
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland

Political parties and leaders:
Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]

Capital:
name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, with the support of the military following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005
head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held by 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%

Administrative divisions:
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes

Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Ghana 16.8%, Burkina Faso 14.5%, Germany 9.2%, Benin 9.1%, Netherlands 5.9%, Mali 5.8%, India 4.7% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
607 million kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.25% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
505 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2006 est.)

Current account balance:
-$433 million (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$2 billion (2005)

Unemployment rate:
NA%

Oil - exports:
1,547 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$900 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
18.4% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$590.7 million (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$5.428 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$3.009 billion (2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar 441.72 (2008 est.), 482.71 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro

GDP - real growth rate:
3.2% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$624.9 million (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
1.302 million (1998)

Imports - partners:
China 36.3%, Estonia 9.6%, US 7.6%, Netherlands 7.3%, France 7% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 25%
services: 35% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
16,650 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$1.001 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

Economy - overview:
This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production, underinvestment in phosphate mining, and strained relations with donors.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Industries:
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
32% (1989 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA

Stock of quasi money:
$383.9 million (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
203 million kWh (2006 est.)

Imports:
$1.725 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$502 million (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
17,770 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Currency code:
XOF

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa

Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $86.71 million (2005 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 98.7%
hydro: 1.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $551.5 million
expenditures: $620.1 million (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
320,000 (2006)

Telephones - main lines in use:
82,100 (2006)

Televisions:
73,000 (1997)

Internet country code:
.tg

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios:
940,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.19 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)

Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 15 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
3 (2001)

Internet hosts:
769 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2008)

Railways:
total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Kpeme, Lome

Merchant marine:
total: 10
by type: cargo 9, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Bangladesh 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 1, Lebanon 1, Syria 2) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (2000)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2007)

Airports:
9 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,365,505
females age 16-49: 1,374,993 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 897,195
females age 16-49: 913,327 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Togolese Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Togolese Navy (Marine du Togo), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, FAT), National Gendarmerie (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 69,156
female: 69,200 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.6% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Ghana)
IDPs: 1,500 (2007)

Illicit drugs:
transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem

Got something to say on this page? Feel free to post your comments ! Please limit your comments to discussions about the subject matter of the content. To report bugs or problems with the ExchangeRate.com web site, please use our contact form here. Thank You!

Quiz #2
  1. What famous canal was built at the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans?
  Atlantic-Pacific Canal
  Transcontinental Canal
  Panama Canal
  Erie Canal
Content, information, data, material, services, or products comprising this web-site may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without written permission from ExchangeRate.com Inc.. The information supplied by this web-site is believed to be accurate, but ExchangeRate.com Inc. does not warrant or guarantee such accuracy. Users are always advised to verify information with their financial and accounting advisors or with the appropriate government agencies before relying on any such information. Information contained in this web-site is intended for your personal, non-commercial use. All other uses are expressly unauthorized and prohibited to the maximum extent allowed by law.
Copyright © ExchangeRate.com Inc. 1998 - 2012