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  Uzbekistan   
Introduction
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational
Issues
  Introduction Back To Top

Background:
Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)
per capita: 2,194 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
72.2 cu km (2003)

Land boundaries:
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate:
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

Map references:
Asia

Geographic coordinates:
41 00 N, 64 00 E

Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Terrain:
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Geography - note:
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

Area:
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Location:
Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Coastline:
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than California

Irrigated land:
42,810 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Maritime claims:
none (doubly landlocked)

Natural hazards:
NA

Land use:
arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
2.01 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
11,000 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.69 years
male: 68.69 years
female: 74.87 years (2008 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
-3.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Median age:
total: 24.3 years
male: 23.8 years
female: 24.8 years (2008 est.)

Population:
27,345,026 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
9.4% of GDP (1991)

Population growth rate:
0.965% (2008 est.)

Languages:
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Death rate:
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 24.23 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2007)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 4,047,918/female 3,870,346)
15-64 years: 66% (male 8,971,017/female 9,079,170)
65 years and over: 5% (male 588,498/female 788,077) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
17.99 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Religions:
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%

Nationality:
noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335

National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)

Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurahim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] (was banned 9 December 1992); Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora HIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York

International organization participation:
ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Legislative branch:
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV

Legal system:
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

Independence:
1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Political parties and leaders:
Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TOSHMUHAMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milliy Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]

Capital:
name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Constitution:
adopted 8 December 1992

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom T0SHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%

Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Russia 22.4%, Poland 10.4%, Turkey 9.4%, Kazakhstan 6.1%, Hungary 6%, China 5.6%, Ukraine 4.8%, Bangladesh 4.3% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
42.23 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - imports:
11.44 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Current account balance:
$5.726 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$4.052 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
0.9% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
11,940 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,700 (2008 est.)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$72.76 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$26.62 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.8 (2003)

Exchange rates:
Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar - 1,317 (2008 est.), 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
8.3% (2008 est.)

Labor force:
15.28 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Russia 30.1%, China 13.3%, South Korea 13%, Germany 6.3%, Kazakhstan 6.2%, Ukraine 4% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13.5% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 28.2%
industry: 33.9%
services: 37.9% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
31,440 bbl/day (2005)

Exports:
$9.96 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
51.18 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
soum (UZS)

Economy - overview:
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings and has come under increasing international criticism for the use of child labor in its annual cotton harvest. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry, as well as increased cooperation with South Korea in the realm of civil aviation, may boost growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), which it subsequently left in 2008, both organizations dominated by Russia. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets.

Natural gas - exports:
14.01 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals

Industries:
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals

Electricity - exports:
11.52 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line:
33% (2004 est.)

Electricity - production:
48.79 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Imports:
$6.5 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
594 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$10.15 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
157,100 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Public debt:
13.6% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$36.89 million (2005)

Currency code:
UZS

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)

Exports - commodities:
cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles

Economic aid - recipient:
$172.3 million from the US (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 88.2%
hydro: 11.8%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
65.19 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $8.005 billion
expenditures: $8.127 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
99,260 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
1.2 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.793 million (2005)

Televisions:
6.4 million (1997)

Internet country code:
.uz

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 3 (2006)

Radios:
10.8 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
5.8 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
28 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent and approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)

Telephone system:
general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the main line telecommunications system is dilapidated and telephone density is low; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, is working on improving main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, with the subscriber base more than doubling in 2007 to 5.8 million
international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
42 (2000)

Internet hosts:
38,183 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Waterways:
1,100 km (2008)

Pipelines:
gas 9,725 km; oil 868 km (2007)

Railways:
total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Termiz (Amu Darya)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2007)

Roadways:
total: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 19 (2007)

Airports:
54 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 7,480,484
females age 16-49: 7,542,017 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,684,540
females age 16-49: 6,432,976 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 324,094
female: 323,923 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
2% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan); 1,060 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: 3,400 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2007)

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Kazakhstan, Russia, Middle East, and Asia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Kazakhstan and Russia for purposes of forced labor in the construction, cotton, and tobacco industries; men and women are also trafficked internally for the purposes of domestic servitude, forced labor in the agricultural and construction industries, and for commercial sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Uzbekistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in 2007; the government did not amend its criminal code to increase penalties for convicted traffickers; in March 2008, Uzbekistan adopted ILO Conventions on minimum age of employment and on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and is working with the ILO on implementation; the government also demonstrated its increasing commitment to combat trafficking in March 2008 by adopting a comprehensive anti-trafficking law; Uzbekistan has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)

Illicit drugs:
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

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