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  Introduction Back To Top

British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 8.01 cu km/yr (21%/10%/69%)
per capita: 61 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
286.2 cu km (2003)

Land boundaries:
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Map references:

Geographic coordinates:
10 00 N, 8 00 E

Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north

Geography - note:
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

853 km

Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of California

Irrigated land:
2,820 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; flooding

Land use:
arable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
5.01 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
5.4% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
3.6 million (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.53 years
male: 45.78 years
female: 47.32 years (2008 est.)

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis and shistosomiasis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Median age:
total: 18.9 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 19 years (2008 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (1991)

Population growth rate:
2.025% (2008 est.)

English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani

Death rate:
16.88 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 95.74 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 101.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 89.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
310,000 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2004)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.7% (male 31,171,949/female 29,806,204)
15-64 years: 55.3% (male 41,243,003/female 39,611,565)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,152,318/female 2,270,267) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
37.23 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robin SANDERS
embassy: 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036

National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
federal republic

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU; Campaign for Democracy or CD; Civil Liberties Organization or CLO; Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR; Constitutional Right Project or CRP; Human Right Africa; National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL; National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS; Nigerian Bar Association or NBA; Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC; Nigerian Medical Association or NMA; the Press; Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Oluwole ROTIMI
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011); House of Representatives - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.7%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%, other 8.7%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 8.8%, UNPP 2.8%, NPD 1.9%, APGA 1.6%, PRP 0.8%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6, UNPP 2, APGA 2, NPD 1, PRP 1, vacant 1

Legal system:
based on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

1 October 1960 (from UK)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria

Political parties and leaders:
Accord Party [Ikra Aliyu BILBIS]; Action Congress or AC [Hassan ZUMI]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Edwin UME-EZEOKE]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Democratic People's Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Labor Party [Dan NWANYANWU]; Movement for the Restoration and Defense of Democracy or MRDD [Mohammed Gambo JIMETA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Vincent OGBULAFOR]; Peoples Progressive Alliance [Clement EBRI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [Mallam Selah JAMBO]

name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

new constitution adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA elected president; percent of vote - Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA 69.8%, Muhammadu BUHARI 18.7%, Atiku ABUBAKAR 7.5%, Orji Uzor KALU 1.7%, other 2.3%

Administrative divisions:
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges recommended by the National Judicial Council and appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government from a pool of judges recommended by the National Judicial Council)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
US 51.6%, Brazil 8.9%, Spain 7.7% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
15.85 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
9.5% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
$7.722 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$9.132 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:

Oil - exports:
2.473 million bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,200 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
21.4% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$16.15 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$328.1 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$220.3 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
43.7 (2003)

Exchange rates:
nairas (NGN) per US dollar - 117.8 (2008 est.), 127.46 (2007), 127.38 (2006), 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
6.2% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$21.72 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
51.04 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
China 10.6%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 7.8%, South Korea 6.6%, UK 5.7%, France 4.3%, Brazil 4.2%, Germany 4.1% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 50.9%
services: 31.1% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
154,300 bbl/day (2005)

$83.09 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
12.9 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
naira (NGN)

Economy - overview:
Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, has undertaken several reforms over the past decade. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. Since 2008 the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. Based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices, GDP rose strongly in 2007 and 2008. President YAR'ADUA has pledged to continue the economic reforms of his predecessor with emphasis on infrastructure improvements. Infrastructure is the main impediment to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for electricity and roads.

Natural gas - exports:
21.2 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
70% (2007 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
16.94% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$19.07 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
22.11 billion kWh (2006 est.)

$46.36 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
36.22 billion bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
5.21 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$72.04 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
312,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$12.83 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
12.2% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$35.75 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$86.35 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 33.2% (2003)

Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber

Economic aid - recipient:
$6.437 billion (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 61.9%
hydro: 38.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
34.1 billion cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $29.49 billion
expenditures: $30.61 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
2.352 million bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
10 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
1.58 million (2007)

6.9 million (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)

23.5 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
40.395 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2001)

Telephone system:
general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed
domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple service providers operate nationally; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 30 per 100 persons in 2007
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2000)

Internet hosts:
1,048 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2008)

condensate 124 km; gas 3,071 km; liquid petroleum gas 156 km; oil 4,347 km; refined products 3,949 km (2007)

total: 3,505 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos

Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen

2 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 68
by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 12, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 46, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 3 (Japan 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 34 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Cook Islands 1, Georgia 1, Italy 1, Liberia 2, Panama 10, Poland 1, Seychelles 1, Sierra Leone 1, unknown 3) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 2 (2007)

total: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 19 (2007)

70 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 31,929,204
females age 16-49: 30,638,979 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 18,556,755
females age 16-49: 17,288,225 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 1,663,025
female: 1,585,224 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
1.5% of GDP (2006)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,778 (Liberia)
IDPs: undetermined (communal violence between Christians and Muslims since President OBASANJO's election in 1999; displacement is mostly short-term) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF

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