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  Antigua and Barbuda   
  Introduction Back To Top

The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.005 cu km/yr (60%/20%/20%)
per capita: 63 cu m/yr (1990)

Total renewable water resources:
0.1 cu km (2000)

Land boundaries:
0 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Geographic coordinates:
17 03 N, 61 48 W

Natural resources:
NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas

Geography - note:
Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor

total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

153 km

Area - comparative:
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Irrigated land:

Environment - current issues:
water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Natural hazards:
hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Land use:
arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 4.55%
other: 77.27% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
2.08 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.25 years
male: 72.33 years
female: 76.26 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 85.8%
male: NA%
female: NA% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
2.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)

Median age:
total: 29.5 years
male: 28 years
female: 30.8 years (2008 est.)

84,522 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2002)

Population growth rate:
1.305% (2008 est.)

English (official), local dialects

Death rate:
6.14 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 17.49 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.21 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27.2% (male 11,670/female 11,318)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 26,138/female 29,859)
65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,408/female 3,129) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
16.78 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)

noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

National holiday:
Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP 4, UPP 13

Legal system:
based on English common law

Flag description:
red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band

1 November 1981 (from UK)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Political parties and leaders:
Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)

name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

1 November 1981

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice

  Economy Back To Top

Electricity - consumption:
97.65 million kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$211 million (2007 est.)

Debt - external:
$359.8 million (June 2006)

Unemployment rate:
11% (2001 est.)

Oil - exports:
157.7 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$19,100 (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$1.002 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.615 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.126 billion (2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003)
note: fixed rate since 1976

GDP - real growth rate:
2.1% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$294.8 million (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
30,000 (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.5% (2007 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 22%
services: 74.3% (2002 est.)

Oil - imports:
4,556 bbl/day (2005)

$84.3 million (2007 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Economy - overview:
Antigua has a relatively high GDP per capita in comparison to most other Caribbean nations. The economy experienced solid growth from 2003 to 2007, reaching over 12% in 2006, driven by a construction boom in hotels and housing associated with the Cricket World Cup. Growth dropped off in 2008 with the end of the boom. Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. Since taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government has adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program, and has been successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from 120% to about 90%.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.44% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$902 million (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
105 million kWh (2006 est.)

$522.8 million (2007 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
4,109 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals

Economic aid - recipient:
$7.23 million (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $123.7 million
expenditures: $145.9 million (2000 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
60,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
37,500 (2006)

31,000 (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

36,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
110,200 (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
2 (1997)

Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: country code - 1-268; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
16 (2000)

Internet hosts:
2,215 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Ports and terminals:
Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 1,146
by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 50, cargo 651, carrier 4, chemical tanker 5, container 392, liquefied gas 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 20
foreign-owned: 1,113 (Australia 1, Colombia 2, Cyprus 18, Denmark 19, Estonia 23, France 1, Germany 941, Greece 3, Iceland 12, Italy 1, Latvia 13, Lithuania 5, Netherlands 20, NZ 2, Norway 8, Poland 2, Russia 4, Slovenia 6, Sweden 1, Switzerland 8, Turkey 6, UK 9, US 8) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

total: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

3 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 19,560
females age 16-49: 18,977 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 15,591
females age 16-49: 15,542 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2007)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 744
female: 742 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:

Illicit drugs:
considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

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