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  Introduction Back To Top

Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. Although a referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995, the present government has reopened debate on the issue.

  Geography Back To Top

Land boundaries:
0 km

subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Map references:
North America

Geographic coordinates:
32 20 N, 64 45 W

Natural resources:
limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m

low hills separated by fertile depressions

Geography - note:
consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

total: 53.3 sq km
land: 53.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km

North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)

103 km

Area - comparative:
about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Irrigated land:

Environment - current issues:
sustainable development

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Natural hazards:
hurricanes (June to November)

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.88 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.297% (2005)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
163 (2005)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.3 years
male: 76.15 years
female: 80.48 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (2005 est.)

Net migration rate:
2.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2000 census)

Median age:
total: 41 years
male: 40.1 years
female: 41.8 years (2008 est.)

66,536 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
1.2% of GDP (2006)

Population growth rate:
0.546% (2008 est.)

English (official), Portuguese

Death rate:
7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 7.87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
392 (2005)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2005)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 6,055/female 5,954)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 22,795/female 23,189)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 3,728/female 4,815) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
11.15 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%, other Protestant 18%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%, none 14% (2000 census)

noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Gregory W. SLAYTON
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233

National holiday:
Bermuda Day, 24 May

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
parliamentary; self-governing territory

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)

Dependency status:
overseas territory of the UK

International organization participation:
Caricom (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC, UPU, WCO, WFTU

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; members appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve up to five-year terms)
elections: last general election held 18 December 2007 (next to be held not later than 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 52.5%, UBP 47.3%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Legal system:
English law

Flag description:
red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda
former: Somers Islands

Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Kim SWAN]

name: Hamilton
geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Richard GOZNEY (since 12 December 2007)
head of government: Premier Ewart BROWN (since 30 October 2006); Deputy Premier Paula COX
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor

Administrative divisions:
9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Spain 13.8%, Germany 11.7%, Switzerland 8.8%, Denmark 6.6%, UK 6% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
619.8 million kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Debt - external:
$160 million (FY99/00)

Unemployment rate:
2.1% (2004 est.)

Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$69,900 (2004 est.)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.5 billion (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

Exchange rates:
Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.6% (2004 est.)

Labor force:
38,360 (2004)

Imports - partners:
South Korea 36.4%, US 15.7%, Germany 13.2%, Italy 11.8% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (November 2005)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 10%
services: 89% (2002 est.)

Oil - imports:
4,378 bbl/day (2005)

$763 million (2006)

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
Bermudian dollar (BMD)

Economy - overview:
Bermuda enjoys the third highest per capita income in the world, more than 50% higher than that of the US. Its economy is primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. A number of reinsurance companies relocated to the island following the 11 September 2001 attacks and again after Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - continues to struggle but remains the island's number two industry. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small, although construction continues to be important; the average cost of a house in June 2003 had risen to $976,000. Agriculture is limited with only 20% of the land being arable.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals

international business, tourism, light manufacturing

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
19% (2000)

Electricity - production:
675.6 million kWh (2007 est.)

$1.162 billion (2006)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture and fishing 3%, laborers 17%, clerical 19%, professional and technical 21%, administrative and managerial 15%, sales 7%, services 19% (2004 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
4,566 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$2.731 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
reexports of pharmaceuticals

Economic aid - recipient:
$90,000 (2004)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $738 million
expenditures: $665 million (FY04/05)

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
48,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
57,700 (2006)

66,000 (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2005)

82,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
60,100 (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
3 (2005)

Telephone system:
general assessment: good
domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic trunk lines
international: country code - 1-441; landing point for the Atlantica-1 telecommunications submarine cable that extends from the US to Brazil; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
20 (2000)

Internet hosts:
1,628 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Ports and terminals:
Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
total: 137
by type: bulk carrier 23, chemical tanker 3, container 22, liquefied gas 33, passenger 24, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 9
foreign-owned: 115 (Australia 1, China 10, France 1, Germany 22, Greece 9, Hong Kong 4, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Japan 2, Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Sweden 20, UK 3, US 23)
registered in other countries: 50 (Bahamas 12, Marshall Islands 4, Philippines 34) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2007)

total: 447 km
paved: 447 km
note: public roads - 225 km; private roads - 222 km (2007)

1 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18-23 years of age; eligible men required to register for conscription as needed into the Bermuda Regiment, which is largely voluntary; term of service 39 months (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 15,623 (2008 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 12,682 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Bermuda Regiment (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 426
female: 445 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.11% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:

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