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  Introduction Back To Top

A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to seize control of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), but it is recognized only by Turkey. The latest two-year round of UN-brokered talks - between the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities to reach an agreement to reunite the divided island - ended when the Greek Cypriots rejected the UN settlement plan in an April 2004 referendum. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under direct government control, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states. The election of a new Cypriot president in 2008 served as the impetus for the UN to encourage both the Turkish and Cypriot Governments to reopen unification negotiations.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.21 cu km/yr (27%/1%/71%)
per capita: 250 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
0.4 cu km (2005)

Land boundaries:
total: 150.4 km (approximately)
border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 47.4 km, Dhekelia 103 km (approximately)

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

Map references:
Middle East

Geographic coordinates:
35 00 N, 33 00 E

Natural resources:
copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m

central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast

Geography - note:
the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)

total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey

648 km

Area - comparative:
about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Irrigated land:
400 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Natural hazards:
moderate earthquake activity; droughts

Land use:
arable land: 10.81%
permanent crops: 4.32%
other: 84.87% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.79 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 1,000 (1999 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.15 years
male: 75.75 years
female: 80.67 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.6%
male: 98.9%
female: 96.3% (2001 census)

Net migration rate:
0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)

Median age:
total: 35.3 years
male: 34.3 years
female: 36.4 years (2008 est.)

792,604 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
6.3% of GDP (2004)

Population growth rate:
0.522% (2008 est.)

Greek, Turkish, English

Death rate:
7.76 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.75 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19.5% (male 78,922/female 75,523)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 275,223/female 267,798)
65 years and over: 12% (male 41,592/female 53,546) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
12.56 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, other (includes Maronite and Armenian Apostolic) 4%

noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Frank C. URBANCIC, Jr.
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, 2407 Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nicosia
telephone: [357] (22) 393939
FAX: [357] (22) 780944

National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as Independence Day

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek junta-supported coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which is recognized only by Turkey

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas KAKOURIS
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772, 462-0873
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Hilmi AKIL; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
unicameral - area under government control: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats, 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: area under government control: last held 21 May 2006 (next to be held 2010); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held 14 December 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 31.1%, DISY 30.3%, DIKO 17.9%, EDEK 8.9%, EURO.KO 5.8%, Greens 2.0%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 18, DISY 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 4, EURO.KO 4, Greens 1; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - CTP 35.8%, UBP 32.3%, Peace and Democratic Movement 13.4%, DP 12.3%; seats by party - CTP 19, UBP 18, Peace and Democratic Movement 6, DP 7; note - "TRNC" seats by party as of September 2006 - CTP 25, ORP 5, UBP 13, DP 6, TDP 1

Legal system:
based on English common law, with civil law modifications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Flag description:
white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag has a white field with narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which is centered a red crescent and a red five-pointed star

16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Kypros/Kibris
note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Political parties and leaders:
area under government control: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; Eleptheroi Polities or K.E.P. [Timis EYTHIMIOU]; European Democracy or EURO.DI [Prodromos PRODROMOU] (evolved from For Europe which merged with New Horizons); European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; Movement for Social Democrats or EDEK [Yannakis OMIROU]; Political Movement of Hunters [Michalis PAFITANIS]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democrats or EDI [Michalis PAPAPETROU]
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Centrist Party or HP [Rasit PERTEV]; Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Mehmet CAKICIL]; Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Yusuf ALKIM]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; Freedom and Reform Party or ORP [Turgay AVCI]; National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Nationalist Justice Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]; New Party or YP [Huseyin TURAN]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Alpay DURDURAN]; Politics for the People Party or HIS [Ahmet YONLUER]; Renewal Progress Party or YAP [Ertugrul HASIPOGLU]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; United Cyprus Party or BKP [Isset IZCAN]

name: Nicosia (Lefkosia)
geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

16 August 1960
note: from December 1963, the Turkish Cypriots no longer participated in the government; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and for better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently since the mid-1960s; in 1975, following the 1974 Turkish intervention, Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which became the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)" when the Turkish Cypriots declared their independence in 1983; a new constitution for the "TRNC" passed by referendum on 5 May 1985, although the "TRNC" remains unrecognized by any country other than Turkey

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 17 and 24 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)
election results: Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS elected president; percent of vote (first round) - Ioannis KASOULIDIS 33.5%, Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 33.3%, Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 31.8%; (second round) Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 53.4%, Ioannis KASOULIDIS 46.6%
note: Mehmet Ali TALAT became "president" of the "TRNC", 24 April 2005, after "presidential" elections on 17 April 2005; results - Mehmet Ali TALAT 55.6%, Dervis EROGLU 22.7%; Ferdi Sabit SOYER is "TRNC prime minister" and heads the Council of Ministers (cabinet) in coalition with "Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister" Turgay AVCI

Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosia (Nicosia)

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)
note: there is also a Supreme Court in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Greece 21.1%, UK 14.3%, Germany 6.6% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
4.151 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$2.609 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$28.84 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
3.8% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$29,200 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
21.4% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$52.09 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$23.12 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$25.59 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29 (2005)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.673 (2008 est.), Cypriot pounds (CYP) per US dollar - 0.4286 (2007), 0.4586 (2006), 0.4641 (2005), 0.4686 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.6% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$4.094 billion
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the Euro Area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 15 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
403,000 (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Greece 17.7%, Italy 10.2%, UK 9.6%, Germany 9.4%, Israel 6.5%, France 5.4%, China 5.3%, Netherlands 4.1% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.1% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.6%
industry: 19.1%
services: 78.3% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
55,970 bbl/day (2005)

$1.53 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:

Economy of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots:
Economy - overview: The Turkish Cypriot economy has roughly 40% of the per capita GDP of the south, and economic growth tends to be volatile, given the north's relative isolation, bloated public sector, reliance on the Turkish lira, and small market size. Agriculture and services, together, employ more than half of the work force. The Turkish Cypriot economy grew around 10.6% in 2006, fueled by growth in the construction and education sectors, as well as increased employment of Turkish Cypriots in the area under government control. GDP declined about 2.0% in 2007. The Turkish Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. Ankara directly finances around one-third of the "TRNC's" budget. Aid from Turkey has exceeded $400 million annually in recent years. The Turkish Cypriot economy probably will probably experience a sharp slowdown in 2008-2009 due to the global financial crisis, because the Turkish Cypriot financial sector is dominated by mainland Turkish banks.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.865 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita: $11,800 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8.6%, industry: 22.5%, services: 69.1% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 95,030 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 14.5%, industry: 29%, services: 56.5% (2004)
Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: %NA
Inflation rate: 11.4% (2006)
Budget: revenues: $2.5 billion, expenditures: $2.5 billion (2006)
Agriculture - products: citrus fruit, dairy, potatoes, grapes, olives, poultry, lamb
Industries: foodstuffs, textiles, clothing, ship repair, clay, gypsum, copper, furniture
Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (2007 est.)
Electricity production: 998.9 million kWh (2005)
Electricity consumption: 797.9 million kWh (2005)
Exports: $68.1 million, f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Export - commodities: citrus, dairy, potatoes, textiles
Export - partners: Turkey 40%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited
Imports: $1.2 billion, f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import - commodities: vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
Import - partners: Turkey 60%; direct trade between the area administered by Turkish Cypriots and the area under government control remains limited
Economic aid - recipient: under a July 2006 agreement, Turkey plans to provide the area administered by Turkish Cypriots 1.875 billion YTL ($1.3 billion) over three years (600 million YTL in 2006, 625 million YTL in 2007 and 650 million YTL in 2008); Turkey has forgiven most past aid; additionally, the EU pledged financial assistance of Euro 259 million ($388 million) in 2004, which is yet to be disbursed.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $NA
Debt - external: $NA
Currency (code): Turkish new lira (YTL)
Exchange rates: Turkish new lira per US dollar: 1.319 (2007) 1.4286 (2006) 1.3436 (2005) 1.4255 (2004) 1.5009 (2003)

Currency (code):
Cypriot pound (CYP); euro (EUR) after 1 January 2008

Economy - overview:
The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by the service sector, which accounts for 78% of GDP. Tourism, financial services, and real estate are the most important sectors. Erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect the economy's reliance on tourism, which often fluctuates with political instability in the region and economic conditions in Western Europe. Nevertheless, the economy in the area under government control grew by an average of 3.6% per year during the period of 2000-06, well above the EU average. Cyprus joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM2) in May 2005 and adopted the euro as its national currency on 1 January 2008. An aggressive austerity program in the preceding years, aimed at paving the way for the euro, helped turn a soaring fiscal deficit (6.3% in 2003) into a surplus of 1.5% in 2007. In 2008, the Cypriot economy grew by 3.6%. This prosperity will come under pressure in 2009, as construction and tourism slow in the face of reduced foreign demand triggered by the ongoing global financial crisis. Growth is expected to slow to 2%, which would be its lowest level since 2003. As in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants are now on line. After 10 years of drought, the country received substantial rainfall from 2001-04 alleviating immediate concerns. Since then, rainfall has been well below average, making water rationing a necessity.

Economic aid - donor:
$25.9 million (2006)

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment

tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone, and clay products

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.74% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$43.93 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
4.52 billion kWh (2007 est.)

$8.689 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 20.5%
services: 71% (2006 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.476 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
57,830 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$6.403 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
49% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$15.04 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$29.48 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, and clothing

Economic aid - recipient:
$15 million (2006)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

revenues:: $11.33 billion
expenditures:: $11.2 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
380,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
area under government control: 376,000 (2007); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 86,228 (2002)

Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 52,300 (1994)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
area under government control: AM 5, FM 76, shortwave 0
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: AM 1, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2004)

Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 56,450 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
area under government control: 962,200 (2007); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 147,522 (2002)

Television broadcast stations:
area under government control: 8
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 2 (plus 4 relay) (2004)

Telephone system:
general assessment: excellent in both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriots
domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
6 (2000)

Internet hosts:
143,099 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Ports and terminals:
area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia

10 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 858
by type: bulk carrier 295, cargo 182, chemical tanker 63, container 193, liquefied gas 10, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 58, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned: 690 (Austria 1, Belgium 2, Canada 2, Chile 1, China 10, Cuba 1, Denmark 4, Estonia 5, Germany 189, Greece 259, Hong Kong 2, India 2, Iran 10, Ireland 3, Israel 4, Italy 7, Japan 21, South Korea 1, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Netherlands 22, Norway 18, Philippines 1, Poland 18, Portugal 1, Russia 50, Singapore 3, Slovenia 4, Spain 6, Sweden 2, Syria 2, Ukraine 4, UAE 9, UK 19, US 5)
registered in other countries: 256 (Antigua and Barbuda 18, Bahamas 25, Belize 1, Burma 1, Cambodia 7, Comoros 1, Georgia 1, Germany 2, Gibraltar 1, Greece 7, Liberia 63, Malta 31, Marshall Islands 37, Netherlands 8, Netherlands Antilles 21, Panama 19, Poland 1, Russia 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Samoa 1, Singapore 1, Tonga 1, Turkey 2, UK 2, unknown 1) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

total: 14,630 km (area under government control: 12,280 km; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 2,350 km)
paved: area under government control: 7,979 km (includes 257 km of expressways); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 1,370 km
unpaved: area under government control: 4,301 km; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 980 km (2006)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2007)

16 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; females are not conscripted; age of military eligibility 17 to 50; length of normal service is 25 months with a minimum of 3 months (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG):
males age 16-49: 199,767
females age 16-49: 190,665 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG):
males age 16-49: 165,042
females age 16-49: 158,869 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Republic of Cyprus: Greek Cypriot National Guard (Ethniki Forea, EF; includes air and naval elements); northern Cyprus: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK) (2007)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 6,482
female: 6,208 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north; Turkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in March 2007

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 210,000 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced for over 30 years) (2007)

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Cyprus is primarily a destination country for a large number of women trafficked from Eastern and Central Europe, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic for the purpose of sexual exploitation; traffickers continued to fraudulently recruit victims for work as dancers in cabarets and nightclubs on short-term "artiste" visas, for work in pubs and bars on employment visas, or for illegal work on tourist or student visas
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cyprus is on the Tier 2 Watch List for a third consecutive year for failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking during 2007; although Cyprus passed a new trafficking law and opened a government trafficking shelter, these efforts are outweighed by its failure to show tangible and critically needed progress in the areas of law enforcement, victim protection, and the prevention of trafficking (2008)

Illicit drugs:
minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; despite a strengthening of anti-money-laundering legislation, remains vulnerable to money laundering; reporting of suspicious transactions in offshore sector remains weak

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