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  Introduction Back To Top

Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
per capita: 121 cu m/yr (1999)

Total renewable water resources:
1.6 cu km (2005)

Land boundaries:
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Map references:

Geographic coordinates:
49 45 N, 6 10 E

Natural resources:
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast

Geography - note:
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world

total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Western Europe, between France and Germany

0 km (landlocked)

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Irrigated land:

Environment - current issues:
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Natural hazards:

Land use:
arable land: 27.42%
permanent crops: 0.69%
other: 71.89% (includes Belgium) (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.78 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 500 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.18 years
male: 75.91 years
female: 82.67 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)

Net migration rate:
8.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2% (2000 census)

Median age:
total: 39 years
male: 38 years
female: 40 years (2008 est.)

486,006 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
3.4% of GDP (1999)

Population growth rate:
1.188% (2008 est.)

Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

Death rate:
8.43 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.62 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.6% (male 46,729/female 43,889)
15-64 years: 66.6% (male 163,356/female 160,425)
65 years and over: 14.7% (male 29,206/female 42,401) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
11.77 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)

noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ann WAGNER
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01

National holiday:
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-Paul SENNINGER
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171/72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%, other 2.8%; seats by party - CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister

Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France

1839 (from the Netherlands)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg

Political parties and leaders:
Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MENLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN] (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); other minor parties

name: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

17 October 1868; occasional revisions

Executive branch:
chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP

Administrative divisions:
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Judicial branch:
judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Germany 21.1%, France 16.3%, Belgium 10.1%, Italy 7.4%, UK 7.1%, Netherlands 5.4%, Spain 5% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
6.748 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - imports:
6.847 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
$3.186 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:

Unemployment rate:
4.7% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
281.5 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$85,100 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
19.3% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$357.9 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$41.38 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$57.61 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26 (2005)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the Euro Area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 15 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Labor force:
206,000 of whom 121,600 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Belgium 27.4%, Germany 23.8%, China 17.1%, France 9.2%, Netherlands 5% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2005 est.)

Oil - imports:
63,760 bbl/day (2005)

$20.78 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
1.329 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
euro (EUR)

Economy - overview:
This stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic slump in the early part of this decade, the country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks third in the world, after Liechtenstein and Qatar. After two years of strong economic growth in 2006-07, turmoil in the world financial markets slowed Luxembourg's economy in 2008, but growth remained above the European average and is likely to remain so in 2009.

Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $291 million (2006)

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods

banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism

Electricity - exports:
2.887 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Stock of quasi money:

Electricity - production:
3.01 billion kWh (2007 est.)

$28.12 billion c.i.f. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1.2%
industry: 20.9%
services: 77.9% (2005 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$205.5 million (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
60,640 bbl/day (2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Public debt:
6.5% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$166.1 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 57.3%
hydro: 25.2%
nuclear: 0%
other: 17.5% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
1.329 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $22.25 billion
expenditures: $22.08 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
345,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
248,200 (2007)

285,000 (1998 est.)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)

285,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
604,200 (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
5 (1999)

Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: fixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated
international: country code - 352 (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
8 (2000)

Internet hosts:
180,756 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

37 km (on Moselle River) (2008)

gas 155 km (2007)

total: 275 km
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2006)

Ports and terminals:

1 (2007)

Merchant marine:
total: 45
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 3, chemical tanker 15, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 44 (Belgium 7, Denmark 1, France 17, Germany 5, Netherlands 2, UK 8, US 4)
registered in other countries: 1 (Ukraine 1) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2007)

total: 5,227 km
paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2004)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

2 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
17-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 116,305
females age 16-49: 114,566 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 95,152
females age 16-49: 93,792 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Army (2007)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 3,066
female: 2,909 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:

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