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  Introduction Back To Top

Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974, making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since that time. Hurricane Ivan struck Grenada in September of 2004 causing severe damage.

  Geography Back To Top

Total renewable water resources:

Land boundaries:
0 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Map references:
Central America and the Caribbean

Geographic coordinates:
12 07 N, 61 40 W

Natural resources:
timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

volcanic in origin with central mountains

Geography - note:
the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

total: 344 sq km
land: 344 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

121 km

Area - comparative:
twice the size of Washington, DC

Irrigated land:

Environment - current issues:

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Natural hazards:
lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

Land use:
arable land: 5.88%
permanent crops: 29.41%
other: 64.71% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
2.27 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 65.6 years
male: 63.74 years
female: 67.47 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: NA
female: NA (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
-11.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
black 82%, mixed black and European 13%, European and East Indian 5%, and trace of Arawak/Carib Amerindian

Median age:
total: 22.4 years
male: 22.9 years
female: 21.9 years (2008 est.)

90,343 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
5.2% of GDP (2003)

Population growth rate:
0.406% (2008 est.)

English (official), French patois

Death rate:
6.31 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 13.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.25 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2005)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.4% (male 14,725/female 14,524)
15-64 years: 64.7% (male 30,911/female 27,502)
65 years and over: 3% (male 1,310/female 1,371) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
21.61 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Roman Catholic 53%, Anglican 13.8%, other Protestant 33.2%

noun: Grenadian(s)
adjective: Grenadian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's
mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1177
FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820

National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG; New Jewel Movement Support Group; The British Grenada Friendship Society; The New Jewel 19 Committee

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Denis G. ANTOINE
chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
consulate(s) general: New York

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (13 seats, 10 appointed by the government and 3 by the leader of the opposition) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 July 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 11, NNP 4

Legal system:
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven administrative divisions

7 February 1974 (from UK)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Grenada

Political parties and leaders:
Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Gloria Payne BANFIELD]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]

name: Saint George's
geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

19 December 1973

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Carlyle Arnold GLEAN (since 27 November 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Tillman THOMAS (since 9 July 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Administrative divisions:
6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of a court of Appeal and a High Court of Justice (a High Court judge is assigned to and resides in Grenada)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Jamaica 92.8%, Saint Lucia 1.3%, US 1.2% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
144.2 million kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$138 million (2007 est.)

Debt - external:
$347 million (2004)

Unemployment rate:
12.5% (2000)

Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$13,600 (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$575.8 million (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.225 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$657 million (2008 est.)

Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.7% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$151.2 million (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
42,300 (1996)

Imports - partners:
Trinidad and Tobago 36.5%, US 23.3%, Italy 4.1% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.7% (2007 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.4%
industry: 18%
services: 76.6% (2003)

Oil - imports:
1,844 bbl/day (2005)

$38 million (2006)

Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Economy - overview:
Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange, especially since the construction of an international airport in 1985. Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Emily (2005) severely damaged the nutmeg industry, which was previously a key driver of economic growth, and the industry is not expected to recover in the near-term. The agricultural sector, particularly nutmeg and cocoa cultivation, has gradually recovered from the hurricanes, and the tourism sector has seen substantial increases in foreign direct investment as the regional share of the tourism market increases. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing, together with the development of an offshore financial industry, have also contributed to growth in national output; however, economic growth will likely slow in 2009 because of the global economic slowdown's effects on tourism and remittances. Grenada has rebounded from the devastating effects of Hurricanes Ivan and Emily, but is now saddled with the debt burden from the rebuilding process. Public debt-to-GDP is nearly 110%, leaving the THOMAS administration limited room to engage in public investments and social spending.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel

food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
32% (2000)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.76% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$533.4 million (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
167.2 million kWh (2006 est.)

$343 million (2006)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 24%
industry: 14%
services: 62% (1999 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
2,043 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace

Economic aid - recipient:
$44.87 million (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $85.8 million
expenditures: $102.1 million (1997)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
23,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
27,700 (2006)

33,000 (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

57,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
46,200 (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
2 (1997)

Telephone system:
general assessment: automatic, islandwide telephone system
domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links
international: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
14 (2000)

Internet hosts:
9 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

Ports and terminals:
Saint George's

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)

total: 1,127 km
paved: 687 km
unpaved: 440 km (2000)

3 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 27,309 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 20,249 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2007)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 1,034
female: 970 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:

Illicit drugs:
small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US

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