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  Introduction Back To Top

Celtic tribes arrived on the island between 600-150 B.C. Invasions by Norsemen that began in the late 8th century were finally ended when King Brian BORU defeated the Danes in 1014. English invasions began in the 12th century and set off more than seven centuries of Anglo-Irish struggle marked by fierce rebellions and harsh repressions. A failed 1916 Easter Monday Rebellion touched off several years of guerrilla warfare that in 1921 resulted in independence from the UK for 26 southern counties; six northern (Ulster) counties remained part of the UK. In 1949, Ireland withdrew from the British Commonwealth; it joined the European Community in 1973. Irish governments have sought the peaceful unification of Ireland and have cooperated with Britain against terrorist groups. A peace settlement for Northern Ireland is gradually being implemented despite some difficulties. In 2006, the Irish and British governments developed and began to implement the St. Andrews Agreement, building on the Good Friday Agreement approved in 1998.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 1.18 cu km/yr (23%/77%/0%)
per capita: 284 cu m/yr (1994)

Total renewable water resources:
46.8 cu km (2003)

Land boundaries:
total: 360 km
border countries: UK 360 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Marine Life Conservation

temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Map references:

Geographic coordinates:
53 00 N, 8 00 W

Natural resources:
natural gas, peat, copper, lead, zinc, silver, barite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Carrauntoohil 1,041 m

mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Geography - note:
strategic location on major air and sea routes between North America and northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 100 km of Dublin

total: 70,280 sq km
land: 68,890 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km

Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain

1,448 km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than West Virginia

Irrigated land:

Environment - current issues:
water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Natural hazards:

Land use:
arable land: 16.82%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 83.15% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.85 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,800 (2001 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.07 years
male: 75.44 years
female: 80.88 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Net migration rate:
4.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Irish 87.4%, other white 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 census)

Median age:
total: 34.6 years
male: 33.9 years
female: 35.4 years (2008 est.)

4,156,119 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
4.7% of GDP (2005)

Population growth rate:
1.133% (2008 est.)

English (official) is the language generally used, Irish (Gaelic or Gaeilge) (official) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard

Death rate:
7.77 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 5.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 18 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20.9% (male 448,333/female 418,476)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 1,400,222/female 1,398,194)
65 years and over: 11.8% (male 218,459/female 272,435) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
14.33 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Roman Catholic 87.4%, Church of Ireland 2.9%, other Christian 1.9%, other 2.1%, unspecified 1.5%, none 4.2% (2006 census)

noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural)
adjective: Irish

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert J. FAUCHER
embassy: 42 Elgin Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [353] (1) 668-8777
FAX: [353] (1) 668-9946

National holiday:
Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
republic, parliamentary democracy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Families Acting for Innocent Relatives or FAIR [Brian McCONNELL] (seek compensation for victims of violence); Families Against Intimidation and Terror or FAIT (oppose terrorism); Gaeltacht Civil Rights Campaign (Coiste Cearta Sibhialta na Gaeilge) or CCSG (encourages the use of the Irish language and campaigns for greater civil rights in Irish speaking areas); Irish Republican Army or IRA (terrorist group); Keep Ireland Open (environmental group); Midland Railway Action Group or MRAG [Willie ALLEN] (transportation promoters); Rail Users Ireland (formerly the Platform 11 - transportation promoters); 32 Country Sovereignty Movement or 32CSM (supports a fully sovereign Ireland); Ulster Defence Association or UDA (terrorist group)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael COLLINS
chancery: 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-3939
FAX: [1] (202) 232-5993
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats; 49 members elected by the universities and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are nominated by the prime minister; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in July 2007 (next to be held by July 2012); House of Representatives - last held 24 May 2007 (next to be held by May 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Fianna Fail 28, Fine Gael 14, Labor Party 6, Progressive Democrats 2, Green Party 2, Sein Fein 1, independents 7; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Fianna Fail 41.6%, Fine Gael 27.3%, Labor Party 10.1%, Sinn Fein 6.9%, Green Party 4.7%, Progressive Democrats 2.7%, other 6.7%; seats by party - Fianna Fail 78, Fine Gael 51, Labor Party 20, Sinn Fein 4, Green Party 6, Progressive Democrats 2, independents 4, Speaker of the Dail 1
note: the Progressive Democrats are disbanding and members expected to be independents

Legal system:
based on English common law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange; similar to the flag of Cote d'Ivoire, which is shorter and has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

6 December 1921 (from UK by treaty)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Ireland
local long form: none
local short form: Eire

Political parties and leaders:
Fianna Fail [Brian COWEN]; Fine Gael [Enda KENNY]; Green Party [John GORMLEY]; Labor Party [Eamon GILMORE]; Progressive Democrats [Ciaran CANNON] (disbanding); Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Mick FINNEGAN]

name: Dublin
geographic coordinates: 53 19 N, 6 14 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

adopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite; effective 29 December 1937

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mary MCALEESE (since 11 November 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Brian COWEN (since 7 May 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 31 October 1997 (next scheduled for October 2011); note - Mary MCALEESE appointed to a second term when no other candidate qualified for the 2004 presidential election; prime minister (taoiseach) nominated by the House of Representatives and appointed by the president
election results: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote - Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%
note: government coalition - Fianna Fail, the Green Party, the Progressive Democrats (disbanding), and independent members of Parliament

Administrative divisions:
26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
UK 18.7%, US 17.9%, Belgium 14.5%, Germany 7.4%, France 5.8% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
25.67 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

Electricity - imports:
1.412 billion kWh (2007 est.)

Current account balance:
-$8.621 billion (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$1.841 trillion (30 June 2007)

Unemployment rate:
6.2% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
29,780 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$47,800 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
19.8% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$768.9 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$198.5 billion (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$285 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32 (2005)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6689 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
-0.7% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the Euro Area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 15 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders

Labor force:
2.27 million (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
UK 38.3%, US 11.3%, Germany 9.7%, Netherlands 5%, France 4.2% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 46%
services: 49% (2002 est.)

Oil - imports:
194,000 bbl/day (2005)

$128 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
4.984 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Currency (code):
euro (EUR)

Economy - overview:
Ireland is a small, modern, trade-dependent economy. GDP growth averaged 6% in 1995-2007, but economic activity dropped sharply in 2008 and Ireland entered into a recession for the first time in more than a decade with the onset of the world financial crisis and subsequent severe slowdown in the property and construction markets. Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry and services. Although the export sector, dominated by foreign multinationals, remains a key component of Ireland's economy, construction most recently fueled economic growth along with strong consumer spending and business investment. Property prices rose more rapidly in Ireland in the decade up to 2006 than in any other developed world economy. Per capita GDP also surged during Ireland's high-growth years, and in 2007 surpassed that of the United States. The Irish Government has implemented a series of national economic programs designed to curb price and wage inflation, invest in infrastructure, increase labor force skills, and promote foreign investment. In 2008 the COWEN government moved to guarantee all bank deposits, recapitalize the banking system, and establish partly-public venture capital funds in response to the country's economic downturn. Ireland joined in circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU nations.

Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $1.022 billion (2006)

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
data processing equipment, other machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, clothing

steel, lead, zinc, silver, aluminum, barite, and gypsum mining processing; food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals; machinery, rail transportation equipment; glass and crystal; software, tourism

Electricity - exports:
82 million kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
7% (2005 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.52% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:

Electricity - production:
25.77 billion kWh (2007 est.)

$91.27 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 27%
services: 67% (2006 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
9.911 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$926.2 million (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption:
200,900 bbl/day (2007 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$149.1 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
31.5% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$216 billion (2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$144 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 27.2% (2000)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, computers, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; live animals, animal products

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 95.9%
hydro: 2.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 1.7% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
4.552 billion cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - production:
457 million cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $93.84 billion
expenditures: $110.8 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2005 est.)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
1.708 million (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
2.112 million (2007)

1.82 million (2001)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 9, FM 106, shortwave 0 (1998)

2.55 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.94 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
4 (many repeaters) (2001)

Telephone system:
general assessment: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay
domestic: microwave radio relay
international: country code - 353; landing point for the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable with links to the US, Canada, and UK; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
22 (2000)

Internet hosts:
1.242 million (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

956 km (pleasure craft only) (2008)

gas 1,855 km (2007)

total: 3,237 km
broad gauge: 1,872 km 1.600-m gauge (37 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,365 km 0.914-m gauge (operated by the Irish Peat Board to transport peat to power stations and briquetting plants) (2006)

Ports and terminals:
Cork, Dublin, Shannon Foynes

Merchant marine:
total: 29
by type: cargo 25, chemical tanker 2, container 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (US 2)
registered in other countries: 21 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 1, Bulgaria 1, Cyprus 3, Isle of Man 1, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 10, Slovakia 1, UK 1) (2008)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2007)

total: 96,602 km
paved: 96,602 km (includes 200 km of expressways) (2003)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 16 (2007)

34 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
17-25 years of age for male or female voluntary military service (17-27 years of age for the Naval Service); enlistees 16 years of age can be recruited for apprentice specialist positions; maximum obligation 12 years; 17-35 years of age for the Reserve Defense Forces; EU citizenship or 5-year residence in Ireland required (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 1,024,635
females age 16-49: 1,024,276 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 854,982
females age 16-49: 852,592 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Irish Defense Forces (Oglaigh na h-Eireann): Army (includes Naval Service and Air Corps (Aer-Chor na h-Eireann)) (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 28,610
female: 27,095 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Ireland, Iceland, and the UK dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for and consumer of hashish from North Africa to the UK and Netherlands and of European-produced synthetic drugs; increasing consumption of South American cocaine; minor transshipment point for heroin and cocaine destined for Western Europe; despite recent legislation, narcotics-related money laundering - using bureaux de change, trusts, and shell companies involving the offshore financial community - remains a concern

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