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  Introduction Back To Top

Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. Fully implementating the Framework Agreement and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made on both fronts over the past several years.

  Geography Back To Top

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 2.27
per capita: 1,118 cu m/yr (2000)

Total renewable water resources:
6.4 cu km (2001)

Land boundaries:
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Kosovo 159 km, Serbia 62 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Map references:

Geographic coordinates:
41 50 N, 22 00 E

Natural resources:
low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Geography - note:
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km

Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

0 km (landlocked)

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than Vermont

Irrigated land:
550 sq km (2003)

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from metallurgical plants

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Natural hazards:
high seismic risks

Land use:
arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.58 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
fewer than 200 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.45 years
male: 71.95 years
female: 77.13 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.1%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.1% (2002 census)

Net migration rate:
-0.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)

Median age:
total: 34.8 years
male: 33.8 years
female: 35.8 years (2008 est.)

2,061,315 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
3.5% of GDP (2002)

Population growth rate:
0.262% (2008 est.)

Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)

Death rate:
8.81 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 9.27 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2005)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19.5% (male 207,954/female 193,428)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 719,708/female 708,033)
65 years and over: 11.3% (male 101,036/female 131,156) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)

noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip T. REEKER
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103

National holiday:
Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Dojcin CVETANOSKI]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: New York, Southfield (Michigan); note - consulate general in Chicago is due to open in 2008

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 June and 15 June 2008 (next to be held by July 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 49%, SDSM-led block 24%, BDI/DUI 13%, PDSh/DPA 8%, other 6%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE-led block 63, SDSM-led block 27, BDI/DUI 18, PDSh/DPA 11, PEI 1

Legal system:
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field

8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Albanians or BDSh [Bardyl MAHMUTI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; For a Better Macedonia coalition [Nikola GRUEVSKI] (includes VMRO-DPMNE, SP, Democratic Union, Democratic Renewal of Macedonia, Democratic Party of Turks, Democratic Party of Serbs, SR, and smaller parties); Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Union or BDK [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Democracy of DR/ND [Imer SELMANI]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Sefedin HARUNI]; Party for European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Party of Free Democrats or PSD [Ljubco JORDANOVSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Sun-Coalition for Europe [Radmila SKERINSKA] (includes SDSM, NSDP, LDP, Liberal Party and smaller parties); Union of Romas or SR [Shaban SALIU]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]

name: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, BDI/DUI, and several small parties
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held in March 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%

Administrative divisions:
84 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the 10 municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges

  Economy Back To Top

Exports - partners:
Serbia and Montenegro 19.2%, Germany 14.5%, Greece 10.4%, Italy 10.1%, Bulgaria 9.8%, Croatia 5.6%, Belgium 5%, Spain 5% (2007)

Electricity - consumption:
8.651 billion kWh (2007)

Central bank discount rate:
6.5% (31 December 2007)

Electricity - imports:
2.6 billion kWh (2007)

Current account balance:
-$740 million (2008 est.)

Debt - external:
$4.624 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:
34.5% (2008 est.)

Oil - exports:
6,768 bbl/day (2005)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,200 (2008 est.)

Investment (gross fixed):
18% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$2.924 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$18.97 billion
note: Macedonia has a large informal sector (2008 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$9.624 billion (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39 (2003)

Exchange rates:
Macedonian denars (MKD) per US dollar - 41.414 (2008 est.), 44.732 (2007), 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.8% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:
$1.173 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
900,000 (2008 est.)

Imports - partners:
Germany 13.2%, Greece 12.9%, Bulgaria 9.6%, Serbia and Montenegro 7.7%, Turkey 6.6%, Italy 6.3%, Slovenia 5% (2007)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 11.4%
industry: 27.2%
services: 61.4% (2008 est.)

Oil - imports:
26,470 bbl/day (2005)

$4.397 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Natural gas - consumption:
100 million cu m (2006 est.)

Currency (code):
Macedonian denar (MKD)

Economy - overview:
Macedonia's small, open economy make it vulnerable to economic developments in Europe and dependent on regional integration and progress toward EU membership for continued economic growth. At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. In 2001, during a civil conflict, the economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth averaged 4% per year during 2003-06 and 5% per year during 2007-08. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains high at nearly 35%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics.

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products

food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
29.8% (2006)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.23% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$3.127 billion (31 December 2007)

Electricity - production:
6.051 billion kWh (2007)

$6.663 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 19.6%
industry: 30.4%
services: 50% (September 2007)

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.43 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Oil - consumption:
19,590 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Public debt:
35.9% of GDP (2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$2.405 billion (2007 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$2.715 billion (31 December 2007)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)

Exports - commodities:
food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel

Economic aid - recipient:
$230.3 million (2005)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 83.7%
hydro: 16.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Natural gas - imports:
102.8 million cu m (2007)

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2007 est.)

revenues: $2.889 billion
expenditures: $2.985 billion (2008 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007)

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
685,000 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
463,600 (2007)

510,000 (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 29, FM 63, shortwave 0 (2007)

410,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.518 million (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
52 (2007)

Telephone system:
general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
domestic: combined fixed line and mobile telephone density approaching 100 per 100 persons
international: country code - 389 (2007)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
6 (2000)

Internet hosts:
36,905 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2007)

total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2006)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2007)

total: 13,182 km (includes 208 km of expressways) (2002)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2007)

17 (2007)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 532,856
females age 16-49: 513,684 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 444,693
females age 16-49: 428,341 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Operations Regiment (2007)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 15,141
female: 14,434 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:
6% of GDP (2005 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:
Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: fewer than 1,000 (ethnic conflict in 2001) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement

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