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  Introduction Back To Top

For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

  Geography Back To Top

Land boundaries:
total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Map references:

Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 1 30 E

Natural resources:
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Geography - note:
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

total: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

0 km (landlocked)

Area - comparative:
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Irrigated land:

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Natural hazards:

Land use:
arable land: 2.13%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.87% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.32 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 82.67 years
male: 80.35 years
female: 85.14 years (2008 est.)

definition: NA
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Net migration rate:
13.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)

Median age:
total: 38.9 years
male: 39.2 years
female: 38.6 years (2008 est.)

82,627 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:
2.3% of GDP (2006)

Population growth rate:
1.899% (2008 est.)

Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Death rate:
5.59 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2006)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 6,606/female 6,192)
15-64 years: 72.5% (male 31,313/female 28,563)
65 years and over: 12% (male 4,906/female 5,047) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
10.59 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Roman Catholic (predominant)

noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175

National holiday:
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

18 years of age; universal

Government type:
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carles FONT-ROSSELL
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2005 (next to be held in March-April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%, CDA-S21 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party - PLA 14, PS 12, CDA-S21 2

Legal system:
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield
note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel)

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra

Political parties and leaders:
Andorran Democratic Center Party (formerly Democratic Party or PD) and Century 21 or CDA and S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND)

name: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993

Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since 30 July 2003)
head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held in April-May 2009)
election results: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA

Administrative divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Judicial branch:
Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

  Economy Back To Top

Electricity - consumption:
NA kWh

Electricity - imports:
NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Debt - external:

Unemployment rate:
0% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$38,800 (2005)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.77 billion (2005)

GDP (official exchange rate):

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.5% (2005 est.)

Labor force:
42,420 (2005)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2005)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

$148.7 million f.o.b. (2005)

Currency (code):
euro (EUR)

Economy - overview:
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

Imports - commodities:
consumer goods, food, electricity

tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture

Electricity - exports:
NA kWh

Population below poverty line:

Electricity - production:
NA kWh

$1.879 billion (2005)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 20.3%
services: 79.4% (2005)

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
tobacco products, furniture

Economic aid - recipient:

Electricity - production by source:

revenues: $333.5 million
expenditures: $386.6 million (2005)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
58,900 (2007)

Telephones - main lines in use:
37,200 (2007)

27,000 (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

16,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
68,500 (2007)

Television broadcast stations:
0 (1997)

Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)

Internet hosts:
23,368 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

total: 270 km

  Military Back To Top

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 18,685 (2008 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 14,976 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 412
female: 395 (2008 est.)

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:

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