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  Introduction Back To Top

The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.

  Geography Back To Top

Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Map references:

Geographic coordinates:
43 46 N, 12 25 E

Natural resources:
building stone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

rugged mountains

Geography - note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

total: 61.2 sq km
land: 61.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

0 km (landlocked)

Area - comparative:
about one third times the size of Washington, DC

Irrigated land:

Environment - current issues:

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Natural hazards:

Land use:
arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2005)

  People Back To Top

Total fertility rate:
1.35 children born/woman (2008 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.88 years
male: 78.43 years
female: 85.64 years (2008 est.)

definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%

Net migration rate:
10.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Ethnic groups:
Sammarinese, Italian

Median age:
total: 41.2 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 41.6 years (2008 est.)

29,973 (July 2008 est.)

Education expenditures:

Population growth rate:
1.181% (2008 est.)


Death rate:
8.37 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.8% (male 2,608/female 2,430)
15-64 years: 66% (male 9,464/female 10,304)
65 years and over: 17.2% (male 2,229/female 2,938) (2008 est.)

Birth rate:
9.74 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)

Roman Catholic

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

  Government Back To Top

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino

National holiday:
Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)

18 years of age; universal

Government type:

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
chancery: 888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: 202-337-2260

International organization participation:

Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2%: PDCS 31.9%, AP 11.5%, Freedom List 6.3%, San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%; Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8%: Party of Socialists and Democrats 32%, United Left 8.6%, Democrats of the Center 4.9%; seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35: PDCS 22, AP 7, the Freedom List 4, San Marino Union of Moderates 2; Reforms and Freedom coalition 25: Party of Socialists and Democrats 18, United Left 5, Democrats of the Center 2

Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

3 September AD 301

Country name (Goverment):
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Political parties and leaders:
Centre Democrats or DdC [Orazio MAZZA]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Freedom List; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [Glauco SANSOVINI]; New Socialist Party [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Loris FRANCINI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or AP [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; Union of Moderates; United Left

name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Executive branch:
chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Ernesto BENEDETTINI and Captain Regent Assunta MELONI (for the period 1 October-31 March 2009)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2008 (next to be held in April 2009); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)
election results: Ernesto BENEDETTINI and Assunta MELONI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles

Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle

Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

  Economy Back To Top

Debt - external:

Unemployment rate:
2.8% (2004)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$46,100 (2006)

Stock of domestic credit:
$7.513 billion (31 December 2007)

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.4 billion (2006)

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.048 billion (2004)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6734 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.6% (2004 est.)

Stock of money:
$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Labor force:
20,470 (2004)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.5% (2006)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

$1.291 billion (2004)

Currency (code):
euro (EUR)

Economy - overview:
San Marino's economy relies heavily on its tourism and banking industries, as well as from the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The economy also benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The San Marino government, sworn in on 3 December 2008, will continue to work towards an economic cooperation agreement with Italy - a longstanding priority - as well as harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

Imports - commodities:
wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Population below poverty line:

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
7.58% (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)

$2.035 billion (2004)

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 40.1%
services: 59.7% (2006 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Currency code:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Exports - commodities:
building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Economic aid - recipient:

revenues: $709.6 million
expenditures: $672.3 million (2004)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

  Communications Back To Top

Internet users:
15,400 (2006)

Telephones - main lines in use:
21,000 (2006)

9,000 (1997)

Internet country code:

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

16,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
17,390 (2006)

Television broadcast stations:
1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)

Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate connections
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network

Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)

Internet hosts:
6,665 (2008)

  Transportation Back To Top

total: 292 km
paved: 292 km (2006)

  Military Back To Top

Military service age and obligation:
16-55 for voluntary service in Voluntary Military Force (2006)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,613 (2008 est.)

Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of Italy

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,345 (2008 est.)

Military branches:
no regular military forces; Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2008)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 156
female: 154 (2008 est.)

Military expenditures:

  Transnational Issues Back To Top

Disputes - international:

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